Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Let us know that Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids. In this article, the text of Aldehyde, Ketone and Carboxylic Acid has been fully explained. We have divided this chapter into three parts, out of which aldehyde in one part and ketone in second part and carboxylic acid in third part. So that all of you students do not face any problem in understanding this lesson.

We have explained the reaction of the first three chapters of the book Chemistry Part 2 in a separate special article. So that it is easy to read all the reactions together and there is no confusion.

Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

carbonyl group

Aldehydes and ketones form a group of organic compounds in which the functional group >C=O is found. which is called a carbonyl group.
In aldehydes the carbonyl group is bonded to carbon and hydrogen whereas in ketones the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms. The carbon atom in the carbonyl group is in sp 2 hybridized state.

Aldehyde, Ketone and Carboxylic Acid Notes

  • Carboxylic acids are more strongly acidic than alcohols.
  • The organic compounds which are obtained by the reaction of fatty acids and alcohols are called esters.
  • Formaldehyde, the first member of the aldehyde family, is a gas at room temperature.
  • Acetone is a colorless and sweet-smelling liquid. Which is soluble in all proportions of water, alcohol and ether.
  • The general formula of a carboxylic acid is RCOOH. Where R denotes alkyl or aryl group. It is of two types. Aliphatic carboxylic acid and aromatic carboxylic acid.
  • Carboxylic acids are weaker than mineral acids. Whereas alcohols and simple phenols are stronger.

Carbonyl compounds

Those compounds, in which carbonyl (₋⁻c=o) group is present, are called carbonyl compounds. Their general formula is CₙH₂ₙO. Compounds containing the -CHO group

Compounds containing aldehyde and ⁻₋C = 0 group are called ketones.

IUPAC system

The IUPAC names of open-chain aliphatic aldehydes and ketones are suffixed to their relative alkane names. It is achieved by – e is obtained by replacing ‘al’ (al) and ‘on’ (one) respectively 

Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones

(i) Aldehydes and ketones lower down to C₁₀ are colorless and volatile liquids, while formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature. The higher members of both are solid and fruity.

(ii) Boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are higher than hydrocarbons and ethers but lower than alcohols.

(iii) All carbonyl compounds are easily soluble in organic solvents.

Q. Ketone kya hota hai?

Ans .Ketone is a substance produced by the breakdown of fats. It is usually found in small amounts in urine. A condition called ketonuria can occur when excessive amounts of ketones are present in the urine. High levels of ketones can make the body seriously ill and even lead to death.

Q. Which reacts with aldehyde and ketone?

Ans .Aldehydes and ketones react with alcohols to form hemiacetals.

Q. Which functional group is common in aldehyde and ketones?

Ans. Common to both aldehydes and ketones is a carbonyl group  , a functional group with a carbon-oxygen double bond.

Q. What is ketone acidity?

Ans .Ketoacidity, ketone acidity or ketoacidosis (Ketoacidosis) is the condition in which the amount of ketones in the body increases very much. The two major ketones produced in the human body are – acetoacetic acid and beta hydroxybutyrate . They are produced by the breakdown of fatty acids and deamination of amino acids.

Q. Aldehyde Kis hote liye hain?

Ans. It is used in the growth, protection, and excretion of plants and vegetables, and as a germicide, fungicide, and insecticide, but its greatest application is in the production of certain polymeric materials.

Q. What is ketone group?

Ans. Ketones are organic compounds that contain a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds on which the alkyl group can reside.

Q. Aldehyde kaise banata hai?

1. Aldehyde is produced by oxidation of primary alcohol from alcohol.

2. With acid chloride – Aldehyde is obtained by hydrogenation of acid chloride in presence of palladium catalyst containing boron sulfate.

Q. Ketone ka sutra kya hota hai?

Ans. Ketones are organic compounds that contain a carbon group and have the general formula R-CO-R.

Q.Which compound is obtained from the study of aldehyde?

Ans .Clemence reduction is a reduction reaction discovered by Eric Christian Clemence. Aldehydes and ketones can be converted into alkene groups in this reaction. The carbonyl groups of aldehydes and ketones are converted to alkene groups on heating with reaction with acidic zinc and concentrated hydrochloric acid.

Q.How will you separate aldehyde and ketone?

Ans . Tollens test is a reaction used to separate aldehydes from ketones, because aldehydes can be oxidized to carboxylic acids while ketones cannot. Tollens’ reagent, which is a mixture of silver nitrate and ammonia, oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids.

Q. Ketones byjus kya hote hain?

Ans .Ketones are organic compounds whose functional group is C=o. And structure R- (C=O) – R’. These carbonyl compounds contain carbon on both sides of the carbon-oxygen double bond. The carbonyl carbon of the ketone group is sp²hybridized.

Q. What is aldehyde ketone and carboxylic acid?

Ans .Aldehyde ketone and carboxylic acid are carbonyl compounds which contain a carbon-oxygen double bond. These are very important organic compounds in the field of organic chemistry, and also have many industrial applications.

Q. What are aldehydes and ketones class 12?

Ans .Organic compounds that have a carbonyl group attached to a hydrogen atom and an alkyl group form an aldehyde. Organic compounds in which a carbonyl group is attached to two alkyl groups form ketones.

Q. What is Aldehyde and Ketone?

Ans. An aldehyde is an organic compound with the general chemical formula R-CHO while a ketone is an organic compound with the general chemical formula R-CO-R.