# Aluminum Conductor

What is Aluminum Conductor: In physics and electrical engineering , a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of charge ( electric current in one or more directions). Metallic materials are common electrical conductors. Electric current is generated by the flow of negatively charged electrons , positively charged holes and positive or negative ions in some cases .

For current to flow within a closed electrical circuit , a charged particle does not have to travel from the component producing the current (the current source ) to the component consuming it (the load ). Instead, the charged particle just needs to nudge its neighbor a finite amount, which will nudge its neighbor , and as long as a particle is pushed into the consumer, this That’s how he gets power. What is essentially happening is a long series of motion transfers between mobile charge carriers ; Drude ModelConduction describes this process more rigorously. This momentum transfer model makes metal an ideal choice for a driver; Metals, in particular, have a denoted sea of ​​electrons that gives electrons sufficient mobility to collide and thus affect momentum transfer.

As discussed above, electrons are the primary inductors in metals; However, other devices such as the cationic electrolyte (s) of a battery , or the mobile proton of a fuel cell’s proton conductor rely on positive charge carriers. Insulators are non-conducting materials with some mobile charge that support only negligible electric currents.

## resistance and conduction

The resistance of a given conductor depends on that material and on its dimensions. For a given material, the resistance is inversely proportional to the area of ​​cross section.  For example, a thick copper wire has a lower resistance than a similarly thin copper wire. Also, for a given material, the resistance is proportional to the length; For example, a long copper wire has a higher resistance than other similar short copper wire. Therefore, the resistance R and conductance G of a conductor of uniform cross-section can be calculated as

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}R&=\rho {\frac {\ell }{A}},\\[6pt]G&=\sigma {\frac {A}{\ell }}.\end{aligned}}}


where is the length of the conductor, measured in meters [m], A is the cross-section area of ​​the conductor measured in square meters [m 2 ], ( sigma ) of the current measured in siemens per meter (s m) The conductivity is -1 ), and ( rho ) is the electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance ) of the material , measured in ohm-meters (Ω m). Resistivity and conductivity are proportionality constants, and therefore depend only on the material of which the wire is made, not the geometry of the wire. Resistivity and conductivity are mutual :

\rho=1/\sigma

Resistivity is a measure of the ability of a material to resist electric current.

This formula is not accurate: it assumes that the current density in the conductor is completely uniform, which is not always true in a practical situation. However, this formula still provides a good approximation for long thin conductors such as wires.

Another situation that this formula is not accurate for is with alternating current (AC), because the skin effect prevents current from flowing near the center of the conductor. Then, the geometric cross- section is different from the effective cross-section in which the current actually flows, so the resistance is higher than expected. Similarly, if two conductors are near each other to carry AC current, their resistance increases due to proximity effect . At commercial power frequencies , these effects are significant for conductors carrying large currents, such as busbars in an electrical substation , Or large power cables carrying more than a few hundred amperes.

In addition to the geometry of the wire, temperature also has a significant effect on the efficacy of conductors. Temperature affects conductors in two main ways, the first being that the material can expand under the application of heat. The amount that the material expands is controlled by the thermal expansion coefficient specific to the material. Such expansion (or contraction) will change the geometry of the conductor and hence its specific resistance. However, this effect is usually 10 −6order is smaller. An increase in temperature will also increase the number of phonons produced within the material. A phonon is essentially a lattice vibration, or a small, harmonic kinetic motion of atoms of a material. Like the vibrating pinball machine, the phonons act to obstruct the path of electrons, causing them to scatter. This electron scattering will reduce the number of electron collisions and therefore the total amount of current transferred.

## conductor material

Conduction materials include metals, electrolytes, superconductors, semiconductors, plasma and some non-metallic conductors such as graphite and conductive polymers.

Copper has high conductivity. Annealed copper is the international standard to which all other electrical conductors are compared; International Annealed Copper Standard Conductivity58 ms/m , although ultra-pure copper can be slightly higher than 101% IACS. The main grade of copper used for electrical applications, such as wires, motor windings, cables and busbars, is electrolytic-toughened pitch (ETP) copper (CW004A or ASTM designation C100140). High conductivity copper must be either welded or brazed or used in reducing environments, so oxygen-free high conductivity copper (CW008A or ASTM designation C10100) may be used.  Because of its ease of connection by soldering or clamping, copper is still the most common choice for most light-gauge wiring.

Silver is 6% more conductive than copper, but this is not practical in most cases due to cost. However, it is used in specialized equipment, such as satellites, and as a thin plating to reduce the loss of skin effect at high frequencies. On loan from the United States Treasury, 14,700 short tons (13,300 t) of silver were used to make Calutron magnets during World War II due to a wartime shortage of copper.

Aluminum wire is the most common metal used in electrical power transmission and distribution. Although only 61% of copper’s conductivity by cross-sectional area, its low density makes it twice as conductive by mass. Since aluminum accounts for about one-third the cost of copper by weight, the economic benefits are considerable when larger conductors are required.

The disadvantages of aluminum wires lie in its mechanical and chemical properties. It readily forms an insulating oxide, causing the connections to overheat. Its greater coefficient of thermal expansion than the brass material used for connectors causes the connection to loosen. Aluminum can also “creep”, gradually deforming under load, which also loosens the connection. These effects can be minimized with appropriately designed connectors and extra care in installation, but they have made aluminum building wiring unpopular after a service drop.

Organic compounds like octane, which contains 8 carbon atoms and 18 hydrogen atoms, cannot conduct electricity. Oils are hydrocarbons, because carbon has the property of tetracovalency and forms covalent bonds with other elements, such as hydrogen, because it does not lose or gain electrons, thus does not form ions. Covalent bonding is simply the sharing of electrons. Therefore, the ions do not dissociate when electricity passes through it. So the liquid (oil or any organic compound) cannot conduct electricity.

While pure water is not an electrical conductor, even a small amount of ionic impurities, such as salt, can rapidly turn it into a conductor.

## wire size

If you have to know about the Aluminum Conductor, now you will know the wire size. Wires are measured by their cross-sectional area. In many countries, the size is expressed in square millimeters. In North America, conductors are measured by American wire gauge for smaller ones and by circular mill for larger ones.

## conductor ampacity

Know about the aluminum conductor, now know the conductor ampacity. A conductor’s ampacity, i.e. the amount of current it can carry, is related to its electrical resistance: a low-resistance conductor can carry a large amount of current. Resistance, in turn, is determined by the material from which the conductor is made (as described above) and the shape of the conductor. For a given material, conductors with a large cross-sectional area have a lower resistance than conductors with a smaller cross-sectional area.

For bare conductors, the ultimate limit is the point at which the power lost by the resistance melts the conductor. Apart from fuses, most conductors in the real world operate far below this limit. For example, household wiring typically insulated with PVC insulation is rated to conduct only up to 60 °C, therefore, the current in such wiring must be limited so that it can conduct copper conductors at 60 °C. Do not heat above, which may cause fire. Other, more expensive insulation such as Teflon or fiberglass may allow operation at much higher temperatures.

## isotropy

To know about Aluminum Conductor, now you will know isotropy. If an electric field is applied to a material, and the resultant induced current is in the same direction, the material is said to be an isotropic conductor . If the resultant electric current is in a direction different from that of the applied electric field, the material is said to be an anisotropic conductor .