Ammonium perchlorate (“AP”) is an inorganic compound with the formula NH 4 ClO 4 . It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. It is a powerful oxidizer . Combined with a fuel, it can be used as a rocket propellant . Its instability has made it involved in several accidents, such as the PEPCON disaster .
Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced from the reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. This process is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid. The salt can also be produced by the salt metathesis reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate. This process exploits the relatively low solubility of NH 4 for chlorine monoxide 4 , which is about 10% of that for sodium perchlorate. 
AP crystallizes as a colorless rhombus.
Like most ammonium salts, ammonium perchlorate decomposes before melting. Mild heating produces hydrogen chloride, nitrogen, oxygen and water.
4NH 4 ClO 4 → 4 HCl + 2N 2 + 5O 2 + 6H 2O
The combustion of AP is quite complex and is studied extensively. AP crystals disintegrate before melting, even though a thin liquid layer has been observed on the crystal surfaces during high-pressure combustion processes.  High heat can cause explosions. Complete reactions leave no residue. Pure crystals cannot sustain a flame below a pressure of 2 MPa.
AP is a Class 4 oxidizer (can undergo an explosive reaction) for particle sizes greater than 15 micrometers  and classified as explosive for particle sizes less than 15 micrometers.
The primary use of ammonium perchlorate is in the manufacture of solid fuel propellants.  When AP is mixed with fuel (e.g. with powdered aluminum and/or elastomeric binder), it can produce long-term self-sustaining combustion at atmospheric pressure. It is an important oxidizer with a decades-long history of use in solid rocket propellant—space launch (including the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster), military, hobbyist, and hobby high-power rockets, as well as some fireworks.
Some “breakable” epoxy adhesives contain suspensions of APs. Upon heating to 300 °C, AP degrades the organic adhesive, breaking the cemented joint.
The perchlorate itself confers slightly acute toxicity. For example, sodium perchlorate has an LD50 of 2–4 g/kg and is rapidly eliminated after ingestion.  However, long-term exposure to perchlorates, even at low concentrations, causes various thyroid problems, as it is substituted for iodine.
Frequently Asked Question
Where can ammonium perchlorate be found?
Ammonium perchlorate and potassium perchlorate are used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant and the remaining salts are found in other items (e.g., explosives, road fires, fireworks and car airbags), some fertilizers and potash naturally. are from.
How is ammonium perchlorate made?
Production. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced from the reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. This process is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid. The salt can also be produced by the salt metathesis reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate.
What is aluminum perchlorate used for?
About aluminum perchlorate
Perchlorates are salts derived from perchloric acid and are commonly used within the pyrotechnics industry.
Is perchlorate in rocket fuel?
Solid rocket fuel is the original rocket fuel, dating back to the time of the early fireworks developed by the Chinese centuries ago. For the SLS booster, aluminum powder serves as the fuel and a mineral salt, ammonium perchlorate, is the oxidizer.