Ammonium Persulfate

Ammonium persulfate (APS) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 . It is a colorless (white) salt that is highly soluble in water, much more so than the related potassium salts. It is a strong oxidizer that is used in polymer chemistry , as an etchant , and as a cleaning and bleaching agent .

Dissolving salt in water is an endothermic process.


Ammonium persulfate is prepared by electrolysis of a cold concentrated solution of ammonium sulfate or ammonium bisulfate in sulfuric acid at high current densities. [1] [2] The method was first described by Hugh Marshall. 

chemical formula (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8
molar mass 228.18 g/mol
appearance white to yellow crystals
density 1.98 g / cm3
Melting point 120 °C (248 °F; 393 K) decomposes
Solubility in water 80 g/100 mL (25 °C)
solubility Slightly soluble in MeOH


As an oxidizer and a source of particulates, APS finds many commercial applications.

Sulfate salts are mainly used as radical initiators in the polymerization of some alkanes. Commercially important polymers prepared using persulfates include styrene-butadiene rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene. In solution, the diene radical dissociates to give:

[O 3 SO-OSO 3 ] 2− 2 [SO 4 ] •−

A sulfate radical adds to an alkene to give a sulfate ester radical. It is also used along with tetramethylethylenediamine to catalyze the polymerization of acrylamide in forming a polyacrylamide gel, hence being important for SDS-PAGE and Western blot.

An example of its powerful oxidizing properties, it is used as an alternative to ferric chloride solution to etch copper on printed circuit boards. [5] This property was discovered many years ago. In 1908, John William Turantine used a dilute ammonium persulfate solution to etch copper. Turantine weighed the copper spirals before placing the copper spirals in a solution of ammonium persulfate for an hour. After one hour, the spirals were weighed again and the amount of copper dissolved by ammonium persulfate was recorded. This experiment was extended to other metals such as nickel, cadmium and iron, all of which yielded similar results. [6] The oxidation equation is as follows: S
8(aq) + 2e  → 2SO 2−

Ammonium persulfate is a standard ingredient in hair bleach.

Persulfate is used as an oxidant in organic chemistry. [7] For example, in the minisi reaction.


Airborne dust containing ammonium persulfate can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, lungs and skin upon contact. Exposure to high levels of dust can cause difficulty in breathing. [8]

It has been noted that persulfate salts are a major cause of asthmatic effects in women. [9] In addition, it has been suggested that exposure to ammonium persulfate may cause asthmatic effects in hair dressers and receptionists working in the hairdressing industry. These asthmatic effects are proposed to be due to the oxidation of the cysteine ​​residue as well as the methionine residue.

Frequently Asked Question

What is the function of ammonium sulfate?

Ammonium sulfate (AS) provides important plant nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) nutrients. Compared to other N fertilizers, such as urea and ammonium nitrate (AN), AS may have some potential agricultural and environmental benefits.

Is ammonium sulfate a base?

Is ammonium sulfate an acid or a base? Ammonium sulfate is formed by the reaction between sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid is a strong acid and ammonium hydroxide is a weak base. Therefore, the salt formed from ammonium sulphate is acidic.

Is ammonium sulfate a fertilizer?

Ammonium sulfate ((NH 4) 2 SO 4 ) is an inorganic salt that has many commercial uses. The most common use is as a soil fertilizer as the chemical contains 21% (w/w) nitrogen and 24% (w/w) sulphur.

What is the property of ammonium sulfate?

Ammonium sulfate is an inorganic sulfate salt obtained by the reaction of sulfuric acid with two equivalents of ammonia. A high melting (dissolved above 280 ℃) white solid that is very soluble in water (70.6 g/100 g water at 0 ℃; 103.8 g/100 g water at 100 ℃), it is widely used as a fertilizer for alkaline soils. is used in. ,

Which element is found in ammonium sulphate?

Ammonium phosphate – Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) is formed by the gradual neutralization of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide to form ammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH4PO4) compound. They are mainly used as phosphate fertilizers and as reagents in the laboratory. These are colorless crystalline compounds.

What is another name for ferrous ammonium sulfate?

Ferrous ammonium sulfate is a double salt of ferrous sulfate and ammonium sulfate (More’s salt). Its formula is FeSO4. (NH4) 2SO4.6H2O.

What is the amount of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate?

Calcium Ammonium Nitrate 25% Nitrogen Calcium Nitrate 15-16% Nitrogen Each nutrient has to perform some special functions inside the plant. One nutrient cannot do the work of another.