Anaphase (from Greek , “up” and , “stage”), is the stage of the process of mitosis followed by metaphase , when repeated chromosomes divide and newly copied chromosomes (daughter chromatids ) are moved to opposite poles. Thesaurus. To help with chromosome segregation and re-formation of the nucleus, chromosomes reach their overall maximum condensation in late anaphase.


Anaphase begins when the anaphas promoting complex marks it for destruction by ubiquitination , an inhibitory chaperone called securin . Securin is a protein that inhibits a protease known as a separase . Securin unleashes the destruction of separase which then breaks down cohesin , a protein responsible for holding sister chromatids together. [2]


At this point, three subclasses of microtubules unique to mitosis are involved in creating the forces necessary to separate chromatids: kinetochore microtubules, interpolar microtubules, and microtubules. The centromere divides, and sister chromatids are pulled to the poles by kinetochore microtubules. They take on a V-shape or a Y-shape as they are pulled to either pole.

While chromosomes are pulled to each side of the cell, interpolar microtubules and fine microtubules generate forces that pull the cell into the ovule.
After anaphase is completed, the cell goes into telophase .

steps of

Anaphase is characterized by two distinct motions. The first of these, anaphases A, moves chromosomes to either pole of the dividing cell ( marked by centrosomes , from which mitotic microtubules are generated and organized). Movement for this is mainly generated by the action of kinetochores, and a subclass of microtubules called kinetochore microtubules.

The second motion, anaphases B, involves the separation of these poles from each other. The movement for this is mainly generated by the action of interpolar microtubules and fine microtubules.

Anaphase A

A combination of different forces acting on the chromatids has been observed in anaphases A, but the primary force is exerted centrally. Microtubules attach to the midpoint of chromosomes ( centromere ) through protein complexes ( kinetochore ). The attached microtubules degenerate and shorten, which together with the motor proteins cause movement that pulls the chromosomes towards the centrosomes located at each pole of the cell.

Anaphase B

The second part of anaphase operates by its own specific mechanism. Force is generated by many actions. Interpolar microtubules begin at each centrosome and connect at the equator of the dividing cell. They push against each other, causing each centrosome to separate further. Meanwhile, fine microtubules start from each centrosome and attach to the cell membrane. This allows them to draw each centrosome closer to the cell membrane. The movement created by these microtubules is produced by a combination of microtubule growth or contractility and motor proteins such as dynein or kinesin .

relationship to the cell cycle

Anaphase accounts for about 1% of the duration of the cell cycle . [7] It begins with the regulated triggering of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Metaphase B ends with the destruction of cyclins . B is marked with cyclin ubiquitin which flags it for destruction by proteasomes , which is essential for the function of metaphase cyclin dependent kinases (M-Cdks). Briefly, activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) causes APC to cleave the M-phase cyclin and the inhibitory protein securin that activates separase protease to cleave the cohesin subunits that hold the chromatids together.

What happens in Anaphase I?

Anaphase I begins when homologous chromosomes separate. The nuclear envelope reforms and nucleoli reappear. The chromosomes become coiled, the nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate, and the centrosomes begin to separate. Spindle filaments are formed and sister chromatids are aligned along the equator of the cell.

What is the significance of Anaphase I?

During anaphase I, the microtubules separate and contract; This, in turn, separates the homologous chromosomes such that the two chromosomes in each pair are drawn to opposite ends of the cell.

What do you understand by Anaphase Movement?

Anaphase (from Ancient Greek α- (ana-) ‘back, backward’, and (phasis) ‘appearance’), is the stage of mitosis following the process of metaphase, when replicated chromosomes divide and new chromosomes form. (daughter chromatids) move to opposite poles of the cell.

How does anaphase I of meiosis differ from anaphase I of mitosis?

In anaphase 1 in meiosis, the homologous pairs separate but the sister chromatids remain fused together. Sister chromatids separate in anaphase 1 of mitosis.

What is the purpose of the Suffrage movement?

There was strong opposition to these demands of women, according to them, by abandoning the traditional style, the lack of beauty, decency and other feminine qualities of women was possible. Due to this type of opposition, such changes in women’s clothing were possible only after the First World War.

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