An aqueous solution is a solution , in which the solvent is water . This is mostly shown in chemical equations by adding (aq) to the relevant chemical formula . For example, a solution of table salt or sodium chloride (NaCl) in water is mixed with Na. will be shown as(aq)+ cl-(AQ) . The word aquatic (which comes from aqua ) means of , relating to, similar to, or dissolved in water . Since water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry . Aqueous solution is water with a pH of 7.0 where hydrogen ions ( H.)+) and the hydroxide ion ( OH .)–) Arrhenius is in equilibrium (10-7 ).
A non-aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is a liquid, but water is not.  ( See also solvent and inorganic non-aqueous solvent .) Hydrophobic (‘water-fearing’) substances do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic (‘water-friendly’). An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions .
The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that arise between water molecules. If the substance lacks the ability to dissolve in water, the molecules form a precipitate .
The reactions in aqueous solutions are usually metathesis reactions. Metathesis reactions are another term for double-displacement; That is, when a cation is displaced and forms an ionic bond with another anion. The cation bonded with the latter anion will dissociate and bond with another ion.
Aqueous solutions that conduct electric current efficiently have strong electrolytes , while those that conduct poorly are considered weak electrolytes. Those strong electrolytes are substances that are completely ionized in water, while weak electrolytes exhibit only a small amount of ionization in water.
Noelectrolytes are substances that dissolve in water yet maintain their molecular integrity (do not dissociate into ions). Examples include sugar , urea , glycerol , and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM).
When writing equations for aqueous reactions, it is necessary to determine the precipitate. To determine the precipitate, one must consult the solubility chart. Soluble compounds are aqueous, whereas insoluble compounds are precipitates. There may not always be a precipitate.
When performing calculations with respect to the reactivity of one or more aqueous solutions , the concentration , or molarity , of aqueous solutions in general must be known. The concentration of the solution is given as the form of the solute before dissolving.
In aqueous solutions, especially in the alkaline region or subjected to radiolysis, the hydrated atoms may be hydrogen and the hydrated electrons .