Carbon Tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by several other names (such as tetrachloromethane , also recognized by IUPAC , carbon tet in the cleaning industry , Halon-104 in fire extinguishers , and refrigerant-10 in HVACR ) is a compound with the chemical formula CCl4 . is an organic compound . , It is a colorless liquid with a “sweet” odor that can be detected at low levels. It is practically not flammable at low temperatures . It was widely use in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants and as a cleaning agent , but has been phase out due to environmental and safety concerns. Exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride ( including vapor ) can affect the central nervous system and damage the liver and kidneys . Prolonged exposure can be fatal.

Property

In a carbon tetrachloride molecule, the four chlorine atoms are locate symmetrically because the vertices in the tetrahedral configuration are link to the central carbon atom by single covalent bonds. Because of this symmetric geometry, CCl 4 is nonpolar. Methane gas has a similar composition, making carbon tetrachloride a halomethane. As a solvent, it is suitable for dissolving other non-polar compounds such as fats and oils. It can also dissolve iodine. It is somewhat volatile, gives off a vapor with an odor characteristic of other chlorinated solvents, somewhat similar to a tetrachloroethylene odor reminiscent of dry cleaner shops.

Solid tetrachloromethane has two polymorphs: crystalline II below −47.5 °C (225.6 K) and crystalline I above −47.5 °C. [5] At −47.3 °C it has a monoclinic crystal structure consisting of the space group C2/c and lattice constants a = 20.3, b = 11.6, c = 19.9 (.10 −1 nm), β = 111°.

With a specific gravity greater than 1, carbon tetrachloride will exist as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid if sufficiently dropped into the environment.

History and Synthesis

Carbon tetrachloride was originally synthesized by the French chemist Henri Victor Regnault in 1839 by the reaction of chloroform with chlorine, [7] but is now produced mainly from methane:CH 4 + 4 Cl 2 → CCl 4 + 4 HCl

Production often uses by-products of other chlorination reactions, such as from the synthesis of dichloromethane and chloroform. Higher chlorocarbons are also subject to “chlorinolysis”:C 2 Cl 6 + Cl 2 → 2 Cl 4

Before the 1950s, carbon tetrachloride was produced by chlorination of carbon disulfide at 105 to 130 °C: [8]Cs 2 + 3 Cl 2 → Ccl 4 + S 2 Cl 2

The production of carbon tetrachloride has declined sharply since the 1980s due to environmental concerns and declining demand for CFCs derived from carbon tetrachloride. In 1992, production in the US/Europe/Japan was estimated at 720,000 tonnes. [8]

Security

Carbon tetrachloride is one of the most potent hepatotoxins (toxic to the liver), so much so that it is widely used in scientific research to evaluate hepatoprotective agents. [9] [10] Exposure to high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (including vapor) can affect the central nervous system and damage the liver [10] and kidneys, [11] and with prolonged exposure There may be coma or death. [12] Chronic exposure to carbon tetrachloride can cause liver [13] [14] and kidney damage and result in cancer. [15] See safety data sheet. [16]

The effects of carbon tetrachloride on human health and the environment have been assess by France under the REACH in 2012 in the context of substance assessment. After this, more information has been sought from the registrants. This decision was later reverse. [17]

In 2008, a study of common cleaning products found the presence of carbon tetrachloride in “very high concentrations” (up to 101 mg/m3) by manufacturers as a result of mixing surfactants or soaps with sodium hypochlorite (bleach) [18]

Carbon tetrachloride is also both an ozone-depleting [19] and a greenhouse gas. [20] However, since 1992 [21] its atmospheric concentration has declined for the reasons described above (see atmospheric concentration graph in the gallery). The atmospheric lifetime of CCl 4 is 85 years. [22]

At high temperatures in the air, it decomposes or burns to produce the toxic phosgene.

toxicological studies

Carbon tetrachloride is a suspected human carcinogen based on substantial evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals. [23] Reported by the World Health Organization, carbon tetrachloride can induce hepatoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and mice. Doses that induce liver tumors are higher than those that induce cell toxicity. [24] Research at the International Agency on Cancer (IARC) classified this compound as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans . [25]

Use

In organic chemistry, carbon tetrachloride serves as a source of chlorine in the Appel reaction.

One particular use of carbon tetrachloride is in stamp collection to reveal the watermark on postage stamps without damaging them. A small amount of liquid is placed on the back of a stamp, sitting in a dark glass or obsidian tray. The letters or design of the watermark can then be clearly seen.

historical use

Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a dry cleaning solvent, as a refrigerant, and in lava lamps. [26] In the last case, carbon tetrachloride is a major component that adds weight to the otherwise buoyant wax.

solvent

It was once a popular solvent in organic chemistry, but due to its adverse health effects, it is rarely used today. [9] It is sometimes useful as a solvent for infrared spectroscopy, as there are no significant absorption bands above 1600 cm. Since carbon tetrachloride contains no hydrogen atoms, it was historically used in proton NMR spectroscopy. In addition to being toxic, its dissolving power is also low. [27] Its use in NMR spectroscopy has largely been superseded by deuterated solvents. The use of carbon tetrachloride in oil fixation has been replaced by many other solvents, such as tetrachloroethylene.[9] Because it has no C–H bonds, carbon tetrachloride does not readily undergo free-radical reactions. It is a useful solvent for halogenations by either elemental halogenation or by a halogenation reagent such as N-bromosuccinimide (these terms are known as Wohl-Ziegler bromination).

fire suppression

In 1910, the Pyrenees Manufacturing Company of Delaware filed a patent for using carbon tetrachloride to extinguish fires. [28] The heat of combustion and extinguished flames caused the liquid to vaporize, an early form of gaseous fire extinguishing. At the time it was believed that the gas displaced oxygen in the area near the fire, but later research found that the gas actually inhibits the chemical chain reaction of the combustion process.

In 1911, Pyrene patented a small, portable extinguisher that used chemicals. [29] The fire extinguisher consisted of a brass bottle with an integrated handpump that was used to eject a jet of liquid towards the fire. Since the container was unpressurized, it could be easily refilled after use. [30] Carbon tetrachloride was suitable for liquid and electrical fires and sprinklers were often carried on aircraft or motor vehicles.
In the first half of the 20th century, another common fire extinguisher was a single-use, sealed glass globe known as a “fire grenade”, filled with carbon tetrachloride or salt water. Bulbs could be thrown at the base of the flames to put out the fire. The carbon tetrachloride type can also be installed into a spring-loaded wall fixture with a solder-based restraint. When the high heat melts the solder, the spring either breaks the globe or pushes it out of the bracket, allowing the extinguishing agent to automatically disperse into the fire. One well-known brand was “Red Comet”, which was manufactured variously along with other fire fighting equipment in the Denver, Colorado area by the Red Comet Manufacturing Company from its inception in 1919 until manufacturing ceased in the early 1980s.

refrigerants

Prior to the Montreal Protocol, large amounts of carbon tetrachloride were used to produce the chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants R-11 (trichlorofluoromethane) and R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). However, these refrigerants play a role in ozone depletion and have been phased out. Carbon tetrachloride is still used to make less destructive refrigerants. Carbon tetrachloride, made from the heavy chlorine-37, has been used in the detection of neutrinos.

Frequently Asked Question

What is the name of the covalent compound CCL4?

Carbon tetrachloride is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. It is a clear liquid with a sweet odor that can be found at low levels. It is also called carbon chloride, methane tetrachloride, perchloromethane, tetrachloroethane or benzoform.

What is the element of CCL4?

carbon tetrachloride

Name
chemical formulaCCL 4
molar mass153.81 g/mol
appearancecolorless liquid
smellsweet, chloroform like smell

What does CCL4 mean in science?

CCL4. carbon tetrachloride . Academics and Science »Chemistry.

What is the name of the covalent compound CCl4 quiz?

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is used as a propellant in aerosol cans.

What is the name of compound cs2?

Carbon disulfide/IUPAC ID

Carbon disulfide (CS2), also known as carbon bisulfide, is a colourless, toxic, highly volatile and flammable liquid chemical compound, used in large quantities in the manufacture of viscose rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride; Small amounts are employed in solvent extraction processes or converted to…

What is the compound for p4o10?

Tricyclo [3.3.1.13,7]tetraphosphoxane 1,3,5,7-tetraoxide

Is CCl4 a binary compound?

The name carbon tetrachloride refers to one carbon atom and four chlorine atoms, hence the formula CCl. is 4 . The name silicon dioxide refers to one silicon atom and two oxygen atoms, hence the formula SiO. is 2 . We have a name that has numeric prefixes on both the elements.

5.2 Nomenclature of binary molecular compounds.

number of atoms of an elementprefix
10Deka-

What is the correct formula for carbon tetrafluoride?

CF4

Is CCl4 a covalent compound?

More specifically speaking, carbon tetrachloride is a non-polar covalent compound because the electrons shared by the carbon and chlorine atoms are almost at the center of the bond. Therefore, carbon tetrachloride ($CC{{l}_{4}}$) is a covalent compound.

What is the name of the compound having the formula Agno3?

Silver nitrate Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula AgNO3.

Chebi: 32130.

Synonymssources say
Agni 3IUPAC
nitric acid silver (I) saltchemidplus
silver nitratechemidplus

What is the name of the compound b2h6?

Diborane(6) , commonly known as diborane, is a chemical compound with the formula B of boron and hydrogen. Happens 2 h 6 . It is a colourless, pyrophoric gas with a repulsive sweet odour. Synonyms include boroethane, boron hydride and diboron hexahydride.

Why is CCl4 an organic compound?

Answer: There are organic compounds that do not contain carbon hydrogen bonds like urea (CO(NH2)2) which is the main constituent of urine and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). CCl4 is considered organic because of its chemical behavior . Methane (CH4) is an organic compound.

Is NaCl soluble in CCl4?

Since NaCl is polar in aqueous solution and water is also polar so both dissolve each other. But the dipole moment of CCl4 is zero, so it is nonpolar, NaCl is insoluble in it .

Is CCl4 an electrolyte?

For example, carbon tetrachloride CCl4 does not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water and, therefore, does not conduct electricity. And therefore, it is a non-electrolyte .

What is another name for a molecular compound?

Naming covalent compounds and molecular compounds can be fun! In this tutorial, you will learn how to derive names of covalent compounds from molecular formulas. Molecular compound is another name for a covalent compound, they mean the same thing.

What is the name of the compound n2o4n2o4?

The molecule N2O4 would be dinitrogen tetroxide . Names for molecular (covalent) compounds are determined by numerical prefixes based on the number of atoms of each element in the molecule. If the next letter is “o” then the “a” at the end of the prefix is ​​removed. Thus the name is “tetroxide”, not “tetroxide”.

What is the name of the covalent compound N2O5 quiz?

The name of N2O5 is dinitrogen pentoxide . Two atoms of nitrogen are required to use the prefix di- and the five oxygen atoms in the formula are represented by pentoxide. What is the name of the compound having formula SF6? SF6 stands for Sulfur Hexafluoride.

How do you type CS2 name?

Carbon disulfide is an organosulfur compound and a carbon compound.

How do you name CS2?

Carbon disulfide , also known as carbon disulfide, is a neurotoxic colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS. is 2 . The compound is often used as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent.See also Why we should study Geography

What type of compound is carbon disulfide?

organosulfur compound

What is carbon disulfide? CS2 is an organosulfur compound and a volatile liquid with the chemical name carbon disulfide. It is also called carbon bisulfide or disulfidocarbon or methanedithione. Carbon disulfide is a solvent for sulfur, bromine, fats, rubber, phosphorus, asphalt, selenium, iodine, and resins.

What is the compound of H3PO4?

The name of compound H3PO4 is phosphoric acid .

Are P2O5 and P4O10 the same thing?

In both cases you will get the same amount. The same stands for P2O5/P4O10: the actual form is usually P4O10 . Happens (depending on the solvent), but the 2 forms end up giving the same result.

What is the molar mass of P4O10?

141.944 g/mol

What is the name of the molecular compound p2o5?

Tricyclo [3.3.1.13,7]tetraphosphoxane 1,3,5,7-tetraoxide

What is the name of the following compound Fe2O3?

Ferric oxide iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.

What is a binary compound example?

Examples of binary compounds include H2O, H2S, and NH3 . Examples of substances that are not chemical compounds include Au, Fe, O, HCN, and HNO3. Binary compounds are substances that contain exactly two elements; Neither more nor less.

What is the formula for carbon?

CO 2

What is the molar mass of carbon tetrafluoride?

88.0043 g/mol

Why is CCl4 not an ionic compound?

HCl and CCl4 are covalent compounds; Hence they cannot be ionic. … Because the two atoms share a pair of electrons, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl. 4 ) form covalent bonds . Since they contain positive and negative ions, sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) form ionic compounds.

Which element is AgNO3?

Formula and Structure: The chemical formula of silver nitrate is AgNO 3 , and its molar mass is 169.87 g/mol. It is a salt, and its chemical structure includes the silver cation (Ag+) and the nitrate anion (NO.) 3– ) , in which the central nitrogen atom is covalently bonded to three oxygen atoms with a net charge of -1.