Come friends, today we are going to tell you about Ch2Cl2 Polar or Nonpolar. Is ch2cl2 polar or is it nonpolar and whether it is ionic or covalent all these facts and features are discussed in detail in this article.
We know that ch2cl2 is a tetrahedral molecule and not all tetrahedral molecules are polar. But ch2cl2 is a polar molecule and almost all tetrahedral molecules have a bond angle of 109.5°. We will see all the detailed facts in later sections.
Why is ch2cl2 polar?
Ch2Cl2 polar or nonpolar Let us now know why ch2cl2 is polar? In simple words, a polar molecule means that one end of the molecule will have a positive charge and the other end will have a negative charge, creating a dipole and making the molecule polar.
Talking about the polarity of Ch2Cl2, yes it is a polar molecule. The important factors controlling the polarity of Ch2Cl2 are size, dipole moment, and its electronegativity. Since these factors help us to determine and understand the polarity concept of Ch2Cl2, all the reasons and facts of how and why are discussed in the section below.
Ch2Cl2 is also known as dichloromethane (or we can also say methylene chloride). It is an organic compound (molecule). It is a liquid (colourless) in appearance and somewhat similar to chloroform (faint). Its observed density is 1.326 g/cm (at a temperature of 20 °C) and boils at a temperature of 39.6 °C. It is found miscible in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride , benzene, etc.
Talking about its occurrence part, it is found/sources in volcanoes, oceans, wetlands etc (these are natural sources of Ch2Cl2). And it builds up in the environment as a result of emissions from industries. We can also prepare it by the reaction of methane (or chloromethane) with chlorine (gas) at temperatures between 410–510 °C. Another method of preparation is reducing chloroform (in the presence of zinc and hydrochloric acid).
Now let’s look at the figure (factor). As we know that the shape of a molecule affects the polarity of that particular molecule, which means it plays a very important role in determining the polarity. The dipole (net) moment results from the uneven distribution of electrons between atoms. So there are unequal charges, so they cannot cancel each other out and make the molecule polar.
The shape of the Ch2Cl2 molecule is tetrahedral, so it is an odd molecule and there is no room for the charges to cancel out. So most of the time a polar molecule will be a heterogeneous molecule which we can now say is a polar molecule.
The next factor is electronegativity. So now we are going to analyze how or what role the concept of electronegativity plays in determining the polarity of a molecule. Consider two atoms with the same electronegativity, which means that the electron density distribution will be equal. But if the atoms have different electronegativities (there must be some difference in their electronegativity) then what will happen that the atom with higher electronegativity of the two will attract electron density towards itself.
This will create a negative polarity on that side and leave the other side of the bond with positive electronegativity. A greater/greater difference in electronegativity increases/increases polarity, provided the difference should not exceed 1.7 for a covalent bond because a bond beyond that difference is ionic. Hence electronegativity plays an important role in increasing the polarity.
Now, let’s have a look at the electronegativity of Ch2Cl2. Electronegativity of hydrogen is observe to be 2.2, that of carbon is 2.5 and that of chlorine atom is about 3.1. So the difference in their electronegativity is 0.3 for CH and 0.6 for C-Cl. Hence it confirms that dichloromethane is a polar molecule.
Now, coming to the next factor i.e. dipole moment. The criterion for the dipole moment is that there must be some difference in the electronegativity of the atoms we are considering. The greater the difference in electronegativity, the greater will be the dipole moment.
In the previous section, we have seen that the difference in electronegativity of CH is 0.3 and that of C-Cl is 0.6. So, yes it leads to a dipole moment and the Ch2Cl2 molecule becomes polar.
Is ch2cl2 polar covalent?
Know about Ch2Cl2 polar or nonpolar, now we will know whether ch2cl2 is polar covalent? about this. So a covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons. The same is the case with Ch2Cl2, the bond formed is covalent. And in the previous section, we explained that Ch2Cl2 is polar. Now let us understand how it is covalent.
Here the electronegativity of the molecule will help us determine whether it is covalent or not. If the difference in electronegativity is greater than 1.7 then a compound or molecule is ionic but if it is less than that then it is a covalent compound.
We have seen that the difference in electronegativity of Ch2Cl2 is not more than 1.7, it is less than that (0.3 and o.6 for CH and C-Cl, respectively). So we can say that Ch2Cl2 is covalent. Yes, Ch2Cl2 is a polar covalent compound.
Is ch2cl2 polar or nonpolar covalent bond?
Ch2Cl2 is a polar covalent bond. Its shape is tetrahedral (asymmetric), the electronegativity difference is not uniform (there is a difference of 0.3 and 0.6 for CH and Cl–Cl, respectively) and a dipole moment exists. The three factors size, electronegativity and dipole moment confirm that Ch2Cl2 is polar.
The bond of Ch2Cl2 is formed covalently. The electronegativity difference does not exceed 1.7 confirming that it is a covalent bond. So we can say that Ch2Cl2 is a polar covalent bond.
Is ch2cl polar aprotic?
To understand whether ch2Cl2 is polar protic or aprotic, we need to understand this concept in general. A solvent is said to be a polar protic solvent if it contains (at least) one hydrogen atom that is/are attached (directly) to atoms such as an OH or NH bond (electronegative atom).
For polar aprotic solvents the hydrogen atom is not directly attached to OH or NH (electronegative atom), which means that hydrogen is not able to form bonds. Some common examples of polar aprotic solvents are acetone, DMF, HMF, etc.
Now coming to the structure of ch2Cl2, can we see any link of the hydrogen atom to an electronegative atom like OH or NH? No, there is no such link in it. Hence it is not able to form hydrogen bonds. So we can say that Ch2Cl2 is polar aprotic.
Is ch2cl2 more polar than chcl3?
As we know that electronegativity plays a very important role in determining the dipole moment as well as the dipole moment and shape. The shape of both Ch2Cl2 and ChCl3 is tetrahedral so we cannot use the factor (shape) to determine the extent of greater polarity in this case.
But it is observed that Ch2Cl2 has higher electronegativity than ChCl3. Coming to the dipole moment, Ch2Cl2 is assumed to have a dipole moment of 1.6 Debye and CHCl3 as 1.01 Debye. The higher the dipole moment, the more polar the molecule is.
We can clearly see that the dipole moment of dichloromethane is greater than that of ChCl3. So it is now confirmed that Ch2Cl2 is more polar than CHCl3.
Is ch2cl2 soluble in water?
We know that water is a polar solvent and that polar-polar molecules are, well, wrong. Yes, Ch2Cl2 is soluble in water but is moderately 100g/20mL at a temperature of 2°C. But in organic solvents (alcohol, benzene, etc.) Ch2Cl2 is better miscible.
The solubility of a molecule varies at different temperatures in air and liquids, so the solubility of ch2cl2 will also differ in different mediums at different temperatures.
Is ch2cl2 protic?
No, Ch2Cl2 cannot be protic because for the solvent to be protic it must have (at least) one hydrogen attached to the electronegative atoms (OH or NH) and be able to form hydrogen bonds. Not so with Ch2Cl2 because it has no hydrogen and electronegative atomic linkages and therefore no hydrogen bonding. Hence, Ch2Cl2 is perpendicular.
As we know that ch2cl2 is a tetrahedral molecule and is asymmetric, so it is a polar aprotic solvent with a dipole moment of 1.6 Debye.
Frequently Asked Question
What is a nonpolar bond?
Two chlorine atoms share an electron pair between each other to obtain a stable octet. Since two atoms are similar, the covalent bond is nonpolar.
What is polar and nonpolar solvent?
Water is a polar molecule and also acts as a polar solvent. When a chemical species is said to be “polar,” it means that the positive and negative electric charges are unevenly distributed. The positive charge comes from the atomic nucleus, while the electrons supply the negative charge.
What is polar and non polar covalent bond?
Polarity and Symmetry
In this sense, bonds are classified as nonpolar covalent when the difference in electronegativities between the two atoms that form the association is less than 0.5. Conversely, when the result of this subtraction is between 0.5 and 1.9, it is known as a polar covalent.
What is solvent and solute?
That is, any solution is made up of both solvent and solute. A solvent is one in which a substance is dissolved, that is, the nature of the solvent is dissolving. A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solvent, that is, it has a dissolving nature.
What is meant by covalent bond?
When a covalent bond exists between two different electronegative elements, it is called a polar covalent bond.
What is polar and nonpolar?
Whether a molecule is polar or non-polar is a matter of its geometry. If one end of the molecule has a positive charge while the other end has a negative charge, then the molecule is polar. If a charge is uniformly distributed around a central atom, the molecule is nonpolar.
How many types of chemical bonds are there?
types of chemical bonds
- Electrovalent Bond
- Covalent Bond
- Co-ordinate Bond