Chloroform (CHCl3) or trichloro methane (English: Trichloro methane) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CHCl3. It is a colorless and fragrant liquid that was used in the medical field as an anesthetic to make a patient unconscious to undergo surgery.  Under anesthesia, the doctor giving the anesthetic has three important purposes, the first of which is to bring the patient to a state of unconsciousness for surgery and to bring him back to a safe state. After this, the second task is to relieve the patient from pain and the third task is to try to loosen the patient’s muscles as per the need of the surgeon. In the early period, all the above three things were done with the same anesthetic ie ether or chloroform (CHCl3), but due to less or more quantity of chloroform, the desired results could not be obtained safely on the patient, due to which many researches in medical science continued and today Due to the progress made in this area, patients get desired results according to the need with the effect of different drugs through balanced anesthesia.
Its use has been discontinued in current medicine. Today chloroform (CHCl3) is used to make chemicals and soaps etc. It is formed after the reaction of chlorine with ethanol. It is toxic and therefore should be used with caution. More close use of chloroform (CHCl3) can have a bad effect on many parts of the body.
History of CHCl3
Chloroform (CHCl3) was originally discovered in July, 1831 by the American physicist Samuel Guthrie, and a few months later independently by the German chemists Eugene Soberen and Justus von Liebig. All of them did transfer experiments of the haloform reaction. Soberan produced it by the reaction of chlorine bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) with acetone (2-propanone) and ethanol. Chloroform was named and characterized by Jean-Baptiste Dumas in 1834. Chloroform (CHCl3) as an anesthetic experiment was discovered by a doctor from Edenburgh, James Young Simpson. Sampson was born on 7 June 1811 at a place called Bathgate, 23 km from Edenburgh.  His father was a very simple man with very little income. Simpson was very smart in reading and writing, he was passionate about everything, at the age of only 14 he enrolled in Edenburgh University and completed his medical studies at the age of only 18.
The history of its discovery is also interesting. Chloroform (CHCl3) was discovered by a doctor in Edinburgh. Once in his hospital, a patient’s hands and feet were tied with rope to operate on a bad leg. There was a wound in his leg which had rotted, his leg had to be amputated. When his leg was amputated, the patient fainted in pain. Along with that, Doctor Sampson who was studying at that time also fainted. On regaining consciousness, he took a vow that he would make some such invention which would not cause so much trouble to the patient. Everyone made fun of him when he talked about this to the friends who studied with him, but he did not lose his courage.
Even after becoming a doctor, he did not forget his promise, he continued to search for this medicine so that no patient would suffer pain during the operation. On November 4, 1847, while doing some experiment, he caught sight of his associate doctor, who was smelling a medicine made by him and he fainted on seeing it. Sampson saw him sniffing himself, he also had the same condition as his associate doctor. Then his wife came there and seeing this, she cried and another doctor saw Dr. Sampson’s pulse, she was doing well, at the same time Dr. Sampson opened her eyes and as soon as she came to her senses, she shouted that she got it, fainting again and regained consciousness. The prescription was found to come in.  Later many changes were made in it and this medicine proved to be a boon for the patients.
The use of chloroform (CHCl3) in the medical world began as early as 1847, but soon doubts were raised about its use due to its adverse effects on patients. were being used. Today, halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane are used in its place in medicine, along with other drugs. The adverse effects of chloroform (CHCl3) on the body can be on the liver, kidney and heart. Due to this, there may be wrinkles and spots on the skin. In addition to serious diseases such as gastroenteritis and diarrhea, due to the high concentration of chloroform in water, infection can also be spread.  In some places people also drink chloroform (CHCl3) mixed with water.
Chloroform (CHCl3) is readily soluble in water. When it reacts with oxygen and sunlight, it produces a toxic gas called phosgene. But if chloroform is taken out in the open, phosgene becomes harmless.