Diploid cells are those that have a duplicate set of chromosomes. The chromosomes that form pairs are called homologous chromosomes. Therefore, diploid cells possess dual genomes due to the presence of two complete sets of homologous chromosomes. Each genome is contributed by different gametes in the case of sexual reproduction.Since gametes are composed of haploid cells, with chromosome content equal to ‘n’, when they merge, they produce ‘2n’ diploid cells. In multicellular organisms, the initial diploid cell derived from this process of fertilization is called a zygote.
Thereafter, the zygote divides by mitosis to give rise to the diploid cells that make up the entire organism. However, a set of body cells will be devoted to the future production of haploid gametes.Gametes, in an organism with diploid cells, can be produced by meiosis (gamete meiosis). In other cases, meiosis gives rise to the tissue, component or generation that will give rise to gametes by mitosis.
This is the typical case of, for example, plants that have a sporophytic generation (‘2n’) and then a gametophyte (‘n’). The gametophyte, the product of meiotic divisions, is responsible for the production of gametes, but by mitosis.
In addition to the fusion of gametes, therefore, the main way to generate diploid cells is by quenching of other gamete cells.
These cells constitute the privileged locus of gene interaction, selection and differentiation. That is, in each diploid cell, two alleles of each gene interact, each contributed by a different genome.
- 1 advantage of diploids
- 1.1 Expression without background noise
- 1.2 Genetic Backup
- 1.3 Constant Expression
- 1.4 Conservation of Variability
- 2 Advantages of Heterozygous
- 2.1 Value of recombination
- 3 references
benefits of diploid
Living beings have evolved in the most efficient way to prevail in situations to which they can present a strong response. That is, to survive and contribute to the survival and persistence of a given genetic lineage.Those who can respond, in new and challenging situations, take additional steps in the same direction, or even a new one, instead of ending. However, there are changes that are major milestones in the path of diversification of living beings.
Among them are undoubtedly the emergence of diploids, in addition to the emergence of sexual reproduction. This, in many respects, confers advantages to the diploid organism.
We will talk a little here about some of the results obtained from the existence of two different but related genomes in the same cell. In a haploid cell, the genome is expressed as a monologue; In a diploid, as in conversation.
Expression without background noise
The presence of two alleles per gene in diploids allows gene expression on a global scale without background noise.
Although some function will always be likely to be disabled, a double genome curves, in general, can determine as many as a single genome is likely to.
One allele is an informative backup of another, but not in the same way that a complementary DNA band is from its sister.In the latter case, the support is to achieve stability and fidelity of the same sequence. In the first, it is so that the coexistence of variability and the differences between two different genomes allow the permanence of functionality.
The diploid organism is likely to retain active functions that define and permeate the information of the genome. In a haploid organism, a mutated gene carries a trait associated with its condition.
In a diploid organism, the presence of a functional gamete will allow the expression of the function even in the presence of a non-functional game.
For example, in cases of mutated alleles with loss of function; or when functional alleles are inactivated by viral insertion or methylation. The allele that does not undergo mutation, inactivation or silencing will be in charge of the manifestation of the character.
conservation of variability
Heterosexuality, apparently, is possible only in diploid organisms. In case of drastic changes in living conditions, heterozygotes provide alternative information for future generations.
Two different properties for a place which, under certain conditions, code for an important function, will certainly be subject to selection. If it is selected by one of them (that is, by the allele of one of them), the other is lost (that is, the allele of the other).In a heterozygous diploid both alleles can coexist for a long time, even under conditions not conducive to the selection of one of them.
advantage of heterozygosity
The advantage of heterozygotes is also known as hybrid vigor or heterosis. According to this concept, the sum of small effects for each gene gives rise to individuals with better biological performance because they are heterozygous for more genes.
In a strictly biological way, heterosis is the counterpart of homozygosis – more interpreted as genetic purity. The two are opposite positions, and the evidence tends to point to heterosis only as a source for change, but also not of superior volatility to change.
In addition to causing genetic variability, therefore it is considered a second driving force of evolutionary change, recombination controls DNA homeostasis.
That is, the preservation of the informational content of the genome and the physical integrity of the DNA depend on meiotic recombination.
Recombination-mediated repair, on the other hand, allows to protect the organization and integrity of the genome material at the local level.To do this, you must resort to an unpaired copy of the DNA to try to repair the one that has suffered alteration or damage. This is possible only in diploid organisms, or at least partially diploid.
What is diploid chromosome?
A diploid is a cell, organism, or tissue that contains two sets of chromosomes. On the other hand, chromosomes are rod-like corpuscles in which the chromatin belonging to the cell nucleus is distributed in the process of meiosis and mitosis.
What is the meaning of haploid and diploid?
The main difference between haploid and diploid is that haploid is the state of having half the normal number of chromosomes whereas diploid is the state of having the normal number of chromosomes in the genome of the cell.
How many chromosomes are there in the human body?
A normal human has 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes are considered to be the carrier of the genetic properties of human beings.
Which is a haploid cell?
A haploid cell is the number of chromosomes within the nucleus of a cell that constitutes a complete chromosome set. This number is usually denoted as “n” where n stands for the number of chromosomes. The haploid number is unique to the type of organism.
What is the haploid life cycle?
Haploid Life Cycle: In this type of life cycle, the main plant represents the gametophyte generation, from which haploid gametes are formed by mitosis. The fusion of gametes produces a diploid zygote, which represents the sporophyte generation.
Which part of the plant is haploid?
The correct answer is option 1 i.e. gamete. Gametogenesis refers to the process of formation of two types of gametes – male and female. Gametes in plants are haploid cells.