Essay on Fundamental Rights

Come friends today we will learn about Essay on Fundamental Rights. Fundamental Rights are an integral part of the Indian Constitution. The basic human rights of all citizens are defined as fundamental rights. In Part-III of the Constitution, it has been said that these rights are given to any person without discrimination on the basis of gender, caste, religion, creed or place of birth. These are enforced by courts subject to precise restrictions. These are guaranteed by the Constitution of India in the form of a civil constitution according to which all people can live their lives in harmony and peace as Indian citizens.

Short and Long Essay on Fundamental Rights

Essay on Fundamental Rights

Essay on Fundamental Rights – 1 (300 words)


After the French Revolution and the American War of Independence, the need was felt to provide fundamental rights to the citizens. It was then that countries around the world thought of giving some essential rights to their citizens.

Historical Background of Fundamental Rights

“The Declaration of Rights of Man” was adopted by the French National Assembly in 1789. The US Constitution also included a section on Fundamental Rights. The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which was made in December 1948. It included the social, economic, political and cultural rights of the people.

The inclusion of religious and cultural rights as fundamental rights of citizens in India was suggested by the Nehru Committee report in 1928. However, the Simon Commission did not support the idea of ​​including Fundamental Rights in the Constitution. In the session held in Karachi in 1931, the Indian National Congress again sought a written assurance for the fundamental rights in the future constitutional system in India. The demand for Fundamental Rights was emphasized in the Round Table Conference held in London. Later in the Second Round Table Conference, Mahatma Gandhi called for guarantees to protect Indian culture, language, script, profession, education and religious practices, and to protect the rights of minorities.

After independence in 1947, the Constituent Assembly took an oath for future good governance. It demanded a constitution that guarantees to all the people of India justice, social, economic and political equality, equal employment opportunities, freedom of thought, expression, belief, association, occupation and action subject to law and public morality. . Along with this, special facilities were also guaranteed for the minorities, backward classes and scheduled caste people.


The right to equality as enshrined in the Constitution stands as a concrete step towards the institution of democracy in the Republic of India. Indian citizens are being assured through these Fundamental Rights that they can live their lives in harmony as long as they live in Indian democracy.

Essay on Fundamental Rights – 2 (400 words)


Fundamental Rights included in the Indian Constitution are a way to ensure that people lead a decent life in the country. These rights have some unique features that are not usually found in the constitutions of other countries.

Distinctive Characteristics of Fundamental Rights

Fundamental rights are not absolute they are subject to reasonable limits. They target the stability between an individual’s liberty and Social Security but reasonable restrictions are subject to legal review. Here’s a look at some of the distinguishing features of these rights:

  • All fundamental rights can be suspended. The right to liberty is automatically suspended during an emergency in the interest of the security and integrity of the country.
  • Many Fundamental Rights are for Indian citizens but some Fundamental Rights can be availed by both citizens and non-citizens of the country.
  • Fundamental rights can be amended but they cannot be abolished. Abolition of Fundamental Rights would violate the basic foundation of the Constitution.
  • Fundamental Rights are both positive and negative. Negative rights prevent the country from doing certain things. It prevents the country from discriminating.
  • Some rights are available against the country. Certain rights are available against individuals.
  • Fundamental Rights are justified. If there is a violation of the fundamental rights of a citizen, then he can go to the court.
  • Some basic rights are not available to persons working in defense services as they are restricted by certain rights.
  • Fundamental Rights are political and social in nature. No economic rights are guaranteed to the citizens of India, although without them other rights are minor or insignificant.
  • Every right is related to some duty.
  • Fundamental rights have a broad outlook and they protect our social, economic, cultural and religious interests.
  • They are an integral part of the constitution. It cannot be changed or taken away by common law.
  • Fundamental rights are an essential part of our constitution.
  • Twenty-four articles are included with these basic rights.
  • The Parliament can amend the Fundamental Rights by a special procedure.
  • Fundamental Rights aim at restoring collective interest along with individual interest.

There is no right to which there is no obligation. However, it is to be remembered that the Constitution has vastly expanded the powers and the courts of law do not have to twist the duties as per their convenience.

Essay on Fundamental Rights – 3 (500 words)


The Constitution of India guarantees fundamental rights to its citizens and citizens can have the right to speech and expression but there are some restrictions and exceptions associated with these rights.

ban on fundamental right 

A citizen cannot fully exercise the Fundamental Rights but the same citizen can enjoy his rights with some constitutional restrictions. The Constitution of India imposes reasonable limits on the exercise of these rights so as to maintain public order, morality and health.

Constitution always protects individual interests as well as communal interests. For example the right to religion is subject to limits by the state in the interest of public order, morality and health so that the freedom of religion is not used to commit crimes or anti-social activities.

Similarly, rights by Article 19 do not imply a guarantee of complete freedom. Absolute individual rights cannot be assured by any current situation. So our constitution has empowered the country to impose proper boundaries as it is necessary for the interest of the community.

Our Constitution seeks to strike a balance between individual liberty and social control and establish a welfare state where communal interest takes precedence over individual interests. Freedom of speech and expression also subject to reasonable restrictions by the state for insult, contempt of court, civility or morality, security of the state, friendly relations with foreign states, provocation to insult, public order and maintenance of the integrity and sovereignty of India Is.

Freedom of assembly is also subject to reasonable limits imposed by the state. The assembly should be non-violent and without weapons and should be in the interest of public order. The freedom of the press, which is included in the wider freedom of expression, is also subjected to reasonable limits and the government may impose restrictions on the freedom of the press in the better interest of the country or to avoid contempt of court, defamation or harassment.

It is the utmost duty for the Government of India to maintain peace and harmony in a multi-religious, multicultural and multilingual nation. This concern is understandable given the socio-political situation prevailing in 1972 – when Bangladesh’s war of independence was over and the country was still trying to recover from refugee incursion. During that time there was growing discontent among local and regional parties like Shiv Sena and Asom Gana Parishad and the voices and actions of religious-cultural organizations like RSS and Jamaat-e-Islami turned violent. Yet it cannot be denied that the Government of India, in dealing with these, has shown greater response to the implementation of sections of the IPC.


No freedom can be unconditional or completely unrestricted. Although it is necessary to maintain and protect the freedom of speech and expression in a democracy, it is necessary to restrict this freedom to some extent for the maintenance of social conduct. Accordingly, under Article 19(2), the Government may impose practical restrictions on the exercise of the right to freedom of speech and expression or in respect of contempt of court in the interest of the protection of public order, sovereignty and integrity of India.

Essay on Fundamental Rights – 4 (600 words)


There are some basic rights which are famous as being fundamental to human existence and vital for human expansion. In the absence of these rights the existence of any man would be useless. Thus when political institutions were created, their role and responsibility were mainly focused on the people (particularly minorities) to live with equality, dignity and the right to religious freedom.

Classification of Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights are classified into 6 categories. These are:

  1. right to equality
  2. right to freedom
  3. right against exploitation
  4. right to freedom of religion
  5. cultural and educational rights
  6. right to constitutional remedies

Let us now know about these 6 fundamental rights in brief:

right to equality

It includes equality before the law which means equal protection of the law on grounds of caste, creed, color or sex, prohibition of public employment, abolition of untouchability and title. It has been said that all citizens are equal before the law and no one can be discriminated against in any manner. This right also states that everyone will have equal access to public places.

In order to provide equal opportunities, there shall be no reservation in the services of the Government to the widows of soldiers and physically handicapped persons except for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes. This right was created primarily to eliminate untouchability which had been practiced in India for decades.

right to freedom

It includes freedom of speech, freedom of speech, freedom to form unions and associates and freedom to travel anywhere in India, freedom to reside and settle in any part of India and freedom to choose any profession.

This right also states that any citizen of India has an absolute right to buy, sell and maintain property in any part of the country. People have the freedom to engage in any trade or business. This right also defines that a person cannot be convicted twice for the same offense and cannot be compelled to stand as a witness against himself.

right against exploitation

This includes prohibition against forced labor of any kind. Children under the age of 14 are not allowed to work in mines or factories, where life risks are involved. According to this, no person has the right to take advantage of another person in any way. Thus human trafficking and begging have been made legal offenses and there is a provision to punish those found involved. Similarly slavery and human trafficking between women and children for dishonest purposes have been declared crimes. Minimum payment for wages has been defined and no compromise is allowed in this regard.

right to freedom of religion

It states that there shall be complete freedom of conscience for all citizens of India. Everyone shall have the right to freely profess, practice and spread the religion of his choice and the Central and State Government shall not interfere in any way in any religious matters of any kind. All religions shall have the right to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes and shall be free to manage their own affairs in respect of these.

cultural and educational rights

It is one of the most important rights as education is considered as the primary right of every child. The Cultural Right states that every country wants to preserve its cultural heritage. According to this right all are free to develop the culture of their choice and free to receive any kind of education. No person shall be denied admission in any educational institution on the basis of his/her culture, caste or religion. All minorities have the right to establish their own educational institutions.

right to constitutional remedies

This is a very special right given to the citizens. According to this right every citizen has the power to approach the court. If any of the above fundamental rights are not followed, the court stands as a guard against the violation of these rights. If in any case the government by force or willfully does injustice to any person or if any person is imprisoned without any reason or illegal act, then the right of the person to go to court and get justice against the actions of the government. allows to do.


Fundamental rights play an important role in the lives of citizens. These rights can be a rescue in times of complexity and difficulty and help us to be a good human being.

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