Father of microscope

Father of microscope: Today we will read Father of microscope. In the 15th century, scientists began to pay attention to the study of the internal structure of the organs of living beings and the study of the complexities of the laws and arrangements of nature and the composition of the universe. But, a big and important difficulty in front of them was that how to see the object which was not clearly visible even when seen with the eyes, that is, they needed a device by which small things could be seen in a larger form and To be seen clearly, the scientists began to prepare that necessary instrument. 

Father of microscope
Father of microscope

According to the information received, the first microscope was invented by Holland resident Jakarius Jansson in 1590 AD. Microscope, that is, it is an instrument to show even the smallest things in a clear and large form. 

After that, in 1665 AD, the English scientist Robert Hooke, born in the small town of Freshwater on Witt Island, made a microscope, from which Robert Hooke obtained many information about the cell. 

Robert Hooke was the observer of the fossils. He was the first to observe fossils under a microscope. They observed close similarities between charred wood and fossil shells on the one hand, and the structures of living wood and living mollusc shells on the other. 

Fossils were known and discussed since the time of Aristotle  . It was generally believed that fossils form  and grow within the earth. 

Stones (fossils) that look like living things are not actually the remains of living things, but are created by a constructive force or ‘extraordinary elastic efficacy’. (Father of microscope)

The great revival of art, literature and knowledge in Europe in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, that is, during the Renaissance, based on classical sources, scholars such as Konrad Gesner collected fossils and displayed them in museums and cabinets. Although scientists did not know anything about the origin and nature of fossils until the late seventeenth century. Even in the seventeenth century many hypotheses were proposed for the origin of fossils. Hooke’s study of fossils made him realize that fossils were not ‘nature’s play’, but the remains of organisms that had once lived.

Other naturalists such as Bernard Pelsey and Nichols Stena believed that fossils were the calcified remains of animals and plants, which were filtered into solid rocks by floods. The theories proposed by Hooke to explain the origin and nature of fossils were later proved correct. Although the time when Hooke presented his fossil theory was not an appropriate time for his acceptance, Hooke had predicted about two and a half hundred years before Charles Darwin that the fossil record documents changes between organisms on Earth. . He realized that during the history of life on Earth, species have come into existence and disappeared. 

Hooke’s micrographia was published only in 1665 AD. This book covers a wide variety of areas. Viewed by Hooke with a connective microscope and illumination system, detailed drawings of a wide variety of objects are included in this book. Robert Hooke has described insects, sponges, bryozoans (microscopic water animals that branch, form flesh-like colonies and reproduce by budding), Faurea minifera (marine protozoa whose shell is filled with calcium and tiny skins and in which have thin filaments) and observed different creatures such as bird feathers.

Micrographia is a precise and detailed record of their observations. Most of the 57 illustrations in it were drawn by Hooke himself, and  some by the famous Christopher Wren. These images, made with the aid of a microscope, were so precise that one could see the eye of a fly, the size of a bee sting organ, the anatomy of flea and louse, the structure of the wings and the types of molds. Robert Hooke used the microscope to describe the characteristics of plant tissues as ‘cells’ because they resembled mosaic cells. 

After Robert Hooke, in 1673 AD, the Dutch scientist Antoine van Leuven Hooke used the study of diamond powder and made a simple rhythmic microscope, with the help of which it was possible to see the object about three hundred times as big. Antony studied many bacteria, protozoa and cells with the help of microscope  . The microscope made by him was also simple. 

Thereafter, Italian scientist Marcizzo Malpizzi improved the instruments of Robert Hooke and Leuven Hawke to study cells and different types of organs. 

In the nineteenth century, scientists from countries like Germany, Britain, USA etc. improved it, which is commonly used in all laboratories. In this device, the magnification of the object is done by the combination of many types of planes. For this reason it is called ‘combined microscope’. In this, the size of the object can be seen two thousand to three thousand times bigger. 

In 1843, Burke invented an reflecting microscope. After this, in 1900 AD, Jigmandi made ultra (ultra) microscope, which is used in the study of micro-organisms. 

In 1932 AD, two German scientists, ‘Knoll and Ruska’, invented the electron microscope. There are two types of electron microscope 

(i) Transmission electron microscope, (ii) Scanning electron microscope. 

Objects can be seen from two lakh to five lakh times larger with an electron microscope. In this, electron rays are used in place of light rays and magnetic field is used in place of glass lenses. 

In 1935 AD, F. Jarnik also invented the shape differencer, that is, the condition comparative microscope. It was during these days that the dark field microscope was also invented. 

In 1945 AD, a scientist named Kujja invented the superimposed fluorescent even microscope. Apart from this, other microscopes include ultraviolet microscope. 

The magnifying power is up to six thousand times. In this, lenses of quartz or lithium fluoride are used.

Today, many improvements have been made in the microscope and will continue to do so, so that the new invention of microscope can lead to the invention of microscope with greater capacity.