Geraniaceae is a family of flowering plants placed in the order Geraniales . The family name is derived from the genus Geranium, the family includes both geraniums (cranesbills, or true geraniums) and garden plants called geraniums, which modern botany classifies as the genus Pelargonium, along with other related species . The family includes 830 species in five to seven genera . The largest genera are Geranium (430 species), Pelargonium (280 species) and Erodium (80 species).



Geraniaceae are herbs or subcategory. Sarcocaulon are succulents , but other members of the family usually are not. The leaves are usually lobed or otherwise divided, sometimes petiolate , opposite or alternate and usually have stipules .

The flowers are usually regular, or symmetrical. They are bisexual , actinomorphic (radially symmetric, as in Geranium ) or slightly zygomorphic (with a bilateral symmetry, as in Pelargonium ). The sepals and corolla are both pentamerous (with five segments), the petals are independent, while the sepals are zygomatic or united at the base. The stamens occur in two whorls of five stamens each, some of which may be unfertile; The pistil consists of five (less commonly three) fused carpels, Linear stigmas are free , and the ovary is superior. The nectaries are localized at the base of the antecapsal stamens and are formed by the receptacle. [3] [4] Pelargonium has only one nectar gland on the adaxial side of the flower. It is hidden in a tube-like cavity formed by the receptacle. [3] [5] Flower morphology is preserved within the Geraniaceae, but there is a great diversity in floral architecture. [3] Flowers are usually grouped in cymes (as in geraniums ), umbels (as in pelargoniums ) or, rarely, spikes.

Geraniaceae are usually pollinated by insects, but self-pollination is not uncommon.

The fruit is a unique schizocarp composed of five (or three) achenes, in the lower part the achenes are inside the calyx, while the upper part (stylar beak) is the style of the flower, looking more like a type of long beak achenes. When the fruit is ripe the style breaks up into five (or three) hygroscopically active (ready to absorb water), which curl up, releasing the achenes.

difference between generations

California lacks filaments without anthers (called staminodes), but the lower half of the five fertile stamens is made much wider by a wing with a rounded apex on each side of the narrow higher part of the filament that leads an anther. Geranium has only ten fertile stamens without wings and lacks staminodes, except G. pusillum has only five stamens. Monsonia has only fifteen fertile stamens, which are merged into a ring at their base or all three with medium filaments more than the others, leaving M. brevirostrata with only five stamens at their base. Arodium has five staminodes without wings and five fertile stamens.Pelargoniums have ten filaments without anthers, between two and seven of which are at the top of the anther, while the remaining three to eight are staminodes that do not have an anthers, but only one inside what looks like a flower stalk. It is easily recognized by having narrow tube-like nectar. , [2]


Geraniaceae and Francoaceae are two families that are included in the order Geraniales under the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification (APG IV). [6] There has been some uncertainty in the number of genera to be included. Stevens gives the seven genera listed here, [7] while Kristenhuz and Bing [8] give five genera.

Stevens lists four synonyms of Geranium : Geraniopsis Chrtek Neurophyllodes (A. Grey) O. Degener Robertianum Picard Robertiella

Hypseocharis , between one and three species, which comes from the southwest Andean region of South America, is thought to be sister to the rest of the family. Some authors separate Hyspeocharis as a monogeneric family Hypseocharitaceae , [9] while older sources place it in the Oxalidaceae. The genus Rhynchotheca has also been divided into Vivianiaceae.

Geraniaceae have several genetic features unique among angiosperms, including highly rearranged plastid genomes that differ in gene content, sequence and extent of inverted repeats. [10]


Distribution and habitat

Most species are found in temperate or warm temperate regions, although some are tropical. Pelargonium has its center of diversity in the Cape region in South Africa, where there is a striking botanical and floral variation.


  • Herbarium specimen of Geranium rotundifolium showing mature fruit
  • Immature fruits of Erodium botrys
  • Actinomorphic flowers of Geranium pratense
  • The zygomorphic flower of a garden geranium (genus Pelargonium )
  • Cultivated Pelargonium Umbals
  • erodium cicutarium
  • Another flower diagram ( Pelargonium zonal , three aborted stamens)
  • sarcokoulon crasicoul
  • a bush with flowers