What is H2SO4 (Sulfuric) a Strong Acid? Sulfuric acid is an important inorganic acid of chemistry that is widely used industrially. Sulfuric acid has been used since ancient times. In ancient times it is obtained from Hare. In modern times, there are many great techniques for its construction. You have to read this article carefully to know the structure, properties, use, and method of preparation of H2SO4.
What is (Sulfuric ) H2SO4 a Strong Acid?
(Sulfuric ) H2SO4 Strong Acid is a strong inorganic acid. Which is also known as a deodorant. Pure sulfuric acid is a Colour less, odour less, oily, thick liquid. It is completely soluble in water. Its chemical formula is H2SO4. And the molecular weight is 98.079 g/mol. The concentrated H2SO4 is called amaranth. It is used as a reactant in the laboratory and in many chemical industries in the synthesis of various chemical substances. The contact method is used to produce it in large quantities. It is said that the country where the use of sulfuric acid is more, that country is richer. It is considered an indicator of industrialization of a country.
Sulfuric acid of ancient times
In the sixteenth century, a scientist named Valentin obtained it by distillation of green cassis (FeSO4.7H2O). To prepare it, sulfuric diazaric gas was dissolved in water. It is sticky like oil. For this reason it was known as “oil of vitriol” in ancient times. The alchemists and rasavid masters of ancient times knew about Gandhakamal for a long time. At that time the Hare Kasis was heated to obtain it. Later some chemists started getting it by heating alum on a high fire. It is also called “cassis oil” because of its oil-like consistency, obtained from green cassis. A molecule of sulfuric acid is synthesized by atoms of the three elements hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Due to the presence of oxygen molecules in it, it is also called “oxyacid”.
Structure of Sulfuric Acid
The structure of sulfuric acid is tetrahedral. In this, the sulfur atom is at the center while two oxygen atoms and two hydroxy groups are located at the angles of the tetrahedron. In this structure the bond length of sulfur and hydroxy group is 157.4 pm and the bond length of sulfur and oxygen is 142.2 pm. Whereas the bond length of oxygen and hydrogen atom is 97 pm.
Use of Sulfuric Acid
Sulfuric acid is widely used in chemistry. It is the acid used in every industrial unit. I am telling you here some important uses of sulfuric acid.
- Sulfuric acid is used to make batteries (lead acid batteries).
- Sulfuric acid is used in the refinement of petroleum and mineral oil.
- H2SO4 is used in the fertilizer industry, such as in the manufacture of superphosphate, ammonium sulfate, etc.
- H2SO4 is also used in the production of synthetic fibres, such as rayon and other yarns.
- Sulfuric acid is used in the manufacture of explosives.
- H2SO4 is used for zinc plating of metals in the enamel industry and in the metallurgical industries.
- Sugarcane is used in the manufacture of paints, pigments, dyes, etc.
- deodorant is also used in the manufacture of medicines.
- It is used in the manufacture of phosphorus, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, washing soda and other chemicals.
- Sulfuric acid is used in laboratories as solvents, desiccating agents and analytical reagents.
- It is also extensively used in iron and steel, plastic and other chemical industries.
- A mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid is used as an explosive.
- It is used in the manufacture of organic compounds.
- H2SO4 is also used to make cellulose nitrate.
Physical and Chemical Properties of H2SO4 a Strong Acid
The following are the physical and chemical properties of sulfuric acid:
Physical properties of sulfuric acid
- Sulfuric acid Is H2SO4 a Strong Acid. Due to its highly reactive, it is also called the king of acids.
- The molecular formula of sulfuric acid is H2SO4 and its molecular weight is 98.079 g/mol.
- Pure sulfuric acid is a colourless, odourless, heavy oily liquid. It was named ‘Oil of Vitriol’ in ancient times due to its viscous like oil.
- It is completely soluble in water.
- Its density in the pure state at 25 °C is 1.834.
- The freezing point of sulfuric acid is 10.5 °C.
- According to modern theory the structure of H2SO4 molecule is tetrahedral. In this, one atom of H2SO4 is located at the center and two hydroxy groups and two oxygen atoms are located at tetrahedral angles. The sulfur-oxygen bond gap in this molecular structure is 1.51 angstrom units.
- The boiling point of sulfuric acid is 337 °C.
Chemical properties of sulfuric acid
- Sulfuric acid reacts with water to form many hydrates. In which sulfuric monohydrate is relatively more stable. Due to this property, concentrated sulfuric acid is a good drying agent. It absorbs water from air as well as absorbs water from organic matter. Therefore, a lot of heat is dissipated in the absorption of water. Due to which the solution of the acid becomes very hot.
- Concentrated sulfuric acid is a strong oxidising agent. Sulfurous acid is formed when the oxygen atom is removed from H2SO4. Due to which the sulfur is released. Sulfuric acid is obtained by the action of sulfuric acid on many metals.
- Ionization of sulfuric acid occurs in aqueous solution. Due to which hydrogen cation, bisulfate and sulfate anion are formed in the solution. Therefore, by the usual methods of chemical analysis, the presence of sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen atoms in sulfuric acid is recorded.
- The density of 100% pure sulfuric acid is 1.8384 grams per milliliter at 15°C. Sulfur trioxide gas is released from it on heating of gandhakaml. Boiling of H2SO4 begins at 290 °C and continues until the temperature reaches 317 °C. At this temperature, the odorant remains 98.54%. At higher temperatures, the dissolution of the odorant begins and as the temperature is increased, the dissolution increases.
- Concentrated sulfuric acid reacts with water to form monohydrate, dihydrate, tetrahydrate of sugarcane, whose melting points are 8.47 °C, – 39.46 °C, melting point – 28.25 °C respectively. 205 calories of heat are produced per gram of concentrated H2SO4 and water reaction.
- The concentrated H2SO4 absorbs water from organic matter, wood and animal tissues. Therefore, due to the decomposition of organic matter, coal remains as a residue. For this reason, when H2SO4 falls on the body and any organism, it gets burnt.
- Sulfuric acid forms salts called sulfates. These sulfates are normal salts or neutral salts. Examples are the common salt sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and the acidic salt sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4). Sodium bisulfate has one hydrogen atom that can now be substituted with bases.
- Sulfates are obtained by the action of H2SO4 on metals, metal oxides, hydroxides, carbonates or other salts. Most sulfates are soluble in water. The salts of calcium, barium, strontium and lead are insoluble or very sparingly soluble in water. Most of these salts are industrially important. Barium and lead sulfate are used as pigments. Sodium sulphate is used in paper manufacturing as copper sulphate insecticide and calcium sulphate is used as plaster of paris.
- There is no reaction of H2SO4 on lead and steel. Therefore, lead and steel vessels are used in the manufacture of H2SO4 and to store H2SO4 a Strong Acid.
How to make Sulfuric Acid
There are two methods of making H2SO4 a Strong Acid. First laboratory method and second industrial method. Only a small amount of H2SO4 can be produced in the laboratory method. Whereas it is produced in large quantities in the industrial method.
1. Laboratory Method for Preparation of Sulfuric Acid
In the laboratory, sulfuric acid can be prepared in small quantities in three ways.
1. H2SO4 is formed by direct reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sulfur dioxide.
H2O2 + SO2 → H2SO4
2. H2SO4 is formed by adding sulfur trioxide to water.
2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
SO3 + H2O → H2SO4
3. Sulfuric acid can also be prepared by slow oxidation of a solution of sulfurous acid in contact with air, but nowadays this method is rarely used.
2. Method of Industrial Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid
In the industrial process, H2SO4 is produced in two ways. H2SO4 is produced by lead chamber process and contact process.
1. The lead chamber process for the manufacture of sulfuric acid
A large amount of H2SO4 is produced by this method, but due to some drawbacks in it, the contact method is used instead. In this process s,ulfur dioxide is oxidized by nitric acid in the presence of water. Therefore, this reaction is carried out in large lead chambers, due to which it got the name “Sis-chamber method”.
In 1740 AD, in Richmond near London, a scientist named Ward set up a factory for the excessive production of sulfuric acid. For the manufacture of sulfuric acid, a mixture of sulfur and salts was heated in an iron vessel. The vapors of the acid were collected in glass containers filled with water. The acid obtained here is a dilute acid, it was later concentrated in glass vessels over a sand salt. But the glass papers that were used used to get hot and break. After some time, six feet wide sis chambers were used in their place.
In the year 1810, by the hard work of a scientist named Holkar, the use of modern Sisakaksha method started. From the year 1818 AD, a mineral called pyrites began to be used in place of the raw material sulfur to obtain sulfur dizark. The modernization of the Sis-Room method began with the development of the Gay-Lupac column in 1827 and the Glober column in 1859. Now oxides of nitrogen, sulfur diazines and air are introduced into the chamber. This gas mixture is entered from below into the 25 ft high Glover Column. In this pillar, a mixture of Gay-Lussac Pillar’s sulfuric acid and Nitrosil sulfuric acid drips from the top. After leaving the column, this gas mixture enters the cis chamber.
1. S + O2 → SO2
OR 4FeS + O2 → 2Fe2O + SO2
2. SO2 + O2 + NO2 → 2SO3
3. SO3 + H2O → H2SO4
Generally, there are three types of sis chambers. Hence, vapor also enters the chamber here. The gas mixture and vapor react to form sulfuric acid. Which collects in the floor of the sis chamber. The residual gases then enter the Gay-Lussac column. Where mainly oxides of nitrogen are present. The Gay-Lussac pillar is filled with pieces of coke or stone. Here the sulfuric acid drips from the top and slowly falls down due to the blockage and absorbs the oxides of nitrogen. and forms nitrosyl sulfuric acid
This prevents the loss of nitrogen oxides. But the sulfuric acid obtained from Sis chamber is impure. Impure H2SO4 contains arsonic, oxides of nitrogen and some salts. This type of acid is commonly used for the manufacture of fertilizers. Pure acid is not required for the manufacture of fertilizers.
2. Contact process of manufacture of sulfuric acid
In the year 1889-90 AD, a scientist named Nitz had developed the method of contact. It is the second most commonly used method for the manufacture of sulfuric acid. The acid obtained by this process is more pure and concentrated. Any concentration of acid can be obtained by this process. By this process, sulfur is obtained by burning sulfur to form acid or by heating pyrites. Sulfur diazaric is mixed with air and brought to the catalyst. Then sulfur trioxide is formed by reacting with the oxygen present in the dimeric air. Oleum is formed by absorption of sulfur trioxide into concentrated sulfuric acid. Later on, the acid of desired concentration is obtained by treating this oleum with water.
In this process, tiny parts of platinum are used as catalysts. But due to the cost of platinum, vanadium pentoxide is used as a catalyst in its place. It is cheaper than platinum. Sulfur dioxide is kept completely free from arsenic, ash and dust particles. so that the activity of the catalyst is not reduced. If the sulfur dioxide gas is not purified, the activity of the catalyst will soon be lost. Therefore, the sulfur diazaric is passed through such substances from which the arsenic is completely removed. Only sulfur diazines, oxygen and nitrogen remain in the chamber in which the catalyst is present.
1. S + O2 → SO2
OR FeS2 + O2 → Fe2O3 + SO2
2. NaNO2 + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HNO3
3 . HNO3 + SO2 → H2SO4 + 2NO2
The gas released from the catalyst chamber is absorbed into the concentrated H2SO4 a Strong Acid. This leads to the formation of oleum. Oleum can absorb more than 40% sulfur trioxide in addition to sulfuric acid. Further, acid of desired concentration can be obtained by adding water to this oleum as per your wish. By this process, sulfuric acid of higher purity is obtained at less cost.
Frequently Asked Question
Q: What is another name for sulfuric acid?
Ans: The other names of sulfuric acid are oil of vitriol and deodorant.
Q: What is the molecular weight of sulfuric acid?
Ans: The molecular weight of sulfuric acid is 98.079 g/mol.
Q: What is the ancient name of sulfuric acid?
Ans: The ancient name of Sulfuric Acid is “Cassis oil”.
Q: How to dilute concentrated sulfuric acid?
Ans: Safety has to be taken care of while diluting concentrated sulfuric acid. It is H2SO4 a Strong Acid. That is why it reacts with water and emits a lot of heat. When diluting concentrated sulfuric acid, the acid should be slowly added to the water. Not water should be mixed with acid. Adding water to acid can cause it to spill out and burn you.
Q: Where is sulfuric acid found?
Ans: The shopkeeper who has the license will get H2SO4 from the same shopkeeper. The government has made strict rules on its sale.
Q: What is the chemical structure of sulfuric acid?
Ans: The structure of sulfuric acid is tetrahedral. In this, the sulfur atom is at the center while two oxygen atoms and two hydroxy groups are located at the angles of the tetrahedron. In this structure the bond length of sulfur and hydroxy group is 157.4 pm and the bond length of sulfur and oxygen is 142.2 pm. Whereas the bond length of oxygen and hydrogen atom is 97 pm.
Q: What is the chemical formula of sulfuric acid?
Q: What is Sulfuric Acid?
Ans: Sulfuric acid is a strong inorganic acid. Which is also known as Gandhakamal. Pure sulfuric acid is a colourless, odourless, oily, thick liquid. It is completely soluble in water.
Q: What is the use of sulfuric acid in agriculture?
Ans: Sulfuric acid is dangerous for agriculture. It is not used for farming. H2SO4 destroys the crop. It is harmful to the flora and fauna.
Q: How is sulfuric acid made?
Ans: Sulfuric acid is prepared by laboratory method, sis chamber method, contact method. It is also produced by the direct reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sulfur dioxide.
Q: What is the use of sulfuric acid?
Ans: Sulfuric acid is used in the fertilizer industry, artificial fibers, batteries, manufacturing of drugs, iron and steel, plastic and other chemical industries, enamel industry, zinc plating on metals and metallurgical industries, in the manufacture of explosives. It is used in the manufacture of paints, pigments, dyes, etc.