What is the Nitrogen oxide formula: Let’s know about Nitrogen oxide formula. Nitrogen oxides They are essentially gaseous inorganic compounds that contain bonds between nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Its group chemical formula is NO X , indicating that the oxide has different proportions of oxygen and nitrogen.
Nitrogen leads group 15 of the periodic table, while oxygen leads group 16; Both elements are members of period 2. This closeness is due to the fact that the N–O bonds in the oxide are covalent. In this way, the bonds in nitrogen oxides are covalent.
All of these links can be explained using the theory of the molecular orbital, which reveals the paramagnetism (the unpaired electron in the previous molecular orbital) of some of these compounds. Of these, the most common compounds are nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide.
The molecule in the upper image corresponds to the angular structure in the gas phase of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). In contrast, nitric oxide (NO) has a linear structure (considering sp hybridization for both atoms).
Nitrogen oxides are gases produced by many human activities, ranging from driving vehicles or smoking cigarettes to polluting waste in industrial processes. However, NO is naturally generated in thunderstorms by enzymatic reactions and lightning: N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) => 2NO (g)
The high temperature of the rays breaks the energetic barrier that prevents this reaction from taking place under normal conditions. What’s the energy barrier? This triple bond formed by N .N, makes the N-molecule 2 an inert gas from the atmosphere.
Oxidation numbers for nitrogen and oxygen in their oxides
The electronic configuration for oxygen [that] 2s is 2 2p 4 , requiring only two electrons to complete the octet of its valence shell; That is, it can gain two electrons and has an oxidation number equal to -2.
On the other hand, the electronic configuration for nitrogen [He] 2s is 2 2p 3 , being able to gain up to three electrons to fill its valence octet; For example, in the case of ammonia (NH 3 ) the oxidation number is equal to -3. But oxygen is much more electronegative than hydrogen and “forces” nitrogen to share its electrons.
How much oxygen can nitrogen share with? If you share the electrons of your valence shell one by one, you will reach the limit of five electrons, which is equal to the oxidation number of +5.
As a result, the oxidation number of nitrogen varies from +1 to +5, depending on how many bonds it has with oxygen.
Various formulations and nomenclature
Nitrogen oxides, in increasing order of nitrogen oxidation number, are:
– N 2 or, nitrous oxide (+1)
– NO, nitric oxide (+2)
– N 2 O 3 , dinitrogen trioxide (+3)
– No 2 , nitrogen dioxide (+4)
– N 2 O 5 , dinitrogen pentoxide (+5)
nitrous oxide (N 2 O)
Nitrous oxide (or popularly known as laughing gas) is a colorless gas, with a slightly sweet odor and slightly reactive. This can be seen as the N molecule 2 (blue sphere) which has an oxygen atom attached to one end. It is prepared by thermal decomposition of nitrate salts and is used as an anesthetic and analgesic.
Nitrogen in this oxide has an oxidation number of +1, which means it is not heavily oxidized and its demand for electrons is not compelling; However, you only need to gain two electrons (one for each nitrogen) to become a stable molecular nitrogen.
The reactions in basic and acid solutions are:
n 2 o (g) + 2 h + (ac) + 2 e – => n 2 (g) + h 2 o (l)
N 2 O (g) + H 2 O (L) + 2 E – => N 2 (g) + 2OH – (AQ)
However these reactions, although favoring the formation of the thermodynamically stable molecule N 2 , occur slowly and the reagents that donate the pair of electrons must be very strong reducing agents.
Nitric Oxide (NO)
This oxide is a colourless, reactive and paramagnetic gas. Like nitrous oxide, it has a linear molecular structure, but with the great difference that the N = O bond also has a triple bond character.
NO is rapidly oxidized in air to produce NO 2 , and thus generate more stable molecular orbitals with more oxidized nitrogen atoms (+4).
2NO (g) + O 2 (g) => 2NO 2 (G)
There are biochemical and physiological studies behind the benign role of this oxide in living organisms.
It cannot form a N-N bond with another molecule of NO due to the delocalization of the unpaired electron in the molecular orbital, which is directed more towards the oxygen atom (due to its higher electronegativity). The opposite happens with NO 2 , which can form a gaseous dimer.
Nitrogen trioxide (N 2 O 3 )
The dotted lines of the structure indicate the double bond resonance. Like all atoms, they have hybridization 2 , the molecule is flat and the molecular interaction exists as a blue solid below -101ºC for nitrogen trioxide. At high temperature it melts and separates into NO and NO 2 .
Why is it divided? Because the oxidation numbers +2 and +4 are more stable than +3, the latter are present for every two nitrogen atoms in the oxide. This, again, can be explained by the stability of the molecular orbitals as a result of the disproportionation.
In the image, 2 O 3 to the left of N coincides with NO, while 2 to the right of NO . Logically, it is formed by the coalescence of previous oxides at very cold temperatures (-20cC). N 2 O 3 is nitrous acid anhydride (HNO 2 ).
Dioxide and nitrogen tetroxide (NO 2 , N 2 O 4 )
No 2 It is a brown or gray gas, reactive and paramagnetic. Since it has an unpaired electron, it binds with another gaseous molecule 2 to form nitrogen tetroxide, a colorless gas, establishing an equilibrium between the two chemical species:
2NO 2 (G) <=> N 2 O 4 (G)
It is a toxic and versatile oxidizing agent, capable of disproportionately in its redox reactions into ions (oxoions). 2 – no more 3 – (causing acid rain), or no.
Similarly, NO is involved in complex atmospheric reactions due to variations in ozone concentrations (or 3 ) at the terrestrial level and in the stratosphere.
Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N 2 O 5 )
When hydrated, it generates HNO 3 , and in high concentrations of acid the oxygen is mainly protonated with a partial positive charge -O + -H, accelerating redox reactions.