Oxides Formation

What is the Oxides Formation: Let’s know about Oxides Formation. basic oxides They are formed by the union of a metal cation with an oxygen cation (OR 2- ); They usually react with water to form bases, or with acids to form salts. Due to its strong electronegativity, oxygen can form stable chemical bonds with almost all elements, resulting in a wide variety of compounds.

One of the most common compounds that can form a dianion oxide of oxygen. Oxides are chemical compounds that have at least one oxygen atom next to another element in their formula; Aggregation of matter with metals or non-metals and can be generated in three states (solid, liquid and gas).

Oxides Formation

Therefore, they have a large number of intrinsic properties, which may differ even between two oxides formed with the same metal and oxygen (such as iron(II) oxide and iron(III) oxide, or ferrous and ferric oxides). ). When a metal binds to an oxygen to form a metal oxide, it is said to have formed a basic oxide.

This is because they dissolve in water to form a base or react as a base in some processes. An example of this is when compounds such as CaO and Na 2O react with water and result in the hydroxides Ca(OH). 2 and 2NOH, respectively.

Basic oxides usually have ionic characters, becoming more covalent when discussing elements on the right side of the periodic table. There are also acid oxides (made from non-metals) and amphoteric oxides (formed from amphoteric elements).


To know about Oxides Formation, now know Training. Alkaline and alkaline earth metals form three different types of binary compounds from oxygen. In addition to oxides, peroxides (which contain peroxide ions can also be given). 2- ) and superoxide (which is near the superoxide anion O  ).

All oxides formed from alkaline metals can be prepared by heating the corresponding nitrate of the metal with its elemental metal, for example, shown below, where the letter M denotes a metal:

2MNO 3 + 10M + Heat → 6M 2 O + N 2

On the other hand, to prepare basic oxides from alkaline earth metals, a heating of their respective carbonates is carried out in the following reaction:

MCO 3 + heat → Mo + CO 2

The formation of basic compounds can also be caused by oxygen treatment, as in the case of sulfides:

2MS + 3O 2 + heat → 2MO + 2SO 2

Finally, it can occur by the oxidation of some metals with nitric acid, as in the following reactions:

2Cu + 8HNO 3 + heat → 2CuO + 8NO 2 + 4H 2 O + O 2

Sn + 4 HNO 3 + heat → Sn 2 + 4NO 2 + 2H 2 O


The nomenclature of the basic oxides varies according to their stoichiometry and the possible oxidation number of the metal element.

Here it is possible to use the general formula, which is metal + oxygen, but there is also a stoichiometric nomenclature (or old stock nomenclature) in which compounds are named by placing the word “oxide”, followed by the name of the metal and its Roman numerals. in the oxidation state.

When it comes to systematic nomenclature with prefixes, the usual rules with the term “oxide” are used, but prefixes are used with the number of atoms in the formula added to each element, as in “diodio trioxide”. Happens in case.

In traditional nomenclature, the suffixes “-so” and “-eco” are used to identify metals with more or less precipitate in the oxide, in addition to the basic oxides known as “basic anhydrides”. This is because they have the ability to form basic hydroxides when water is added to these.

In addition, rules are used in this nomenclature, so that when a metal is oxidized to +3, it is named with the oxide law, and when its oxidation is greater than or equal to +4, So it was named with the law of anhydrides.

Summary rules in the name of basic oxides

The oxidation (or valence) states of each element must always be observed. These rules are summarized below:

1- When the element has a single oxidation number, for example in the case of aluminum (Al 2 O 3 ), the oxide is named:

traditional nomenclature

aluminum oxide.

arranged with prefixes

According to the amount of atoms each element has; That is, dialuminium trioxide.

Systematics with Roman Numerals

Aluminum oxide, where the oxidation state is not written, because it has only one.

2- When the element has two oxidation numbers, for example in the case of lead (+2 and +4), which give the oxides PbO and PbO 2 , respectively), the name is given:

traditional nomenclature

The suffixes “bear” and “echo” for minor and major, respectively. For example: bold oxide for PbO and lead oxide for PbO 2 .

systematic naming with prefixes

Lead Oxide and Lead Dioxide.

Systematic Nomenclature with Roman Numerals

Lead oxide (II) and lead oxide (IV).

3- When an element has oxidation numbers of more than two (up to four), it is called:

traditional nomenclature

To know about Oxides Formation, now know traditional nomenclature. When the element has three valences, the prefix “hypo-” and the suffix “-so” are added to the smallest valence, for example hypophosphorous; The intermediate valence suffix “-so” is added, as in phosphorus oxide; And finally, the “-ico” is added to the valence major, as in phosphoric oxide.

When the element has four valences, as in the case of chlorine, the previous procedure is applied for the minor and the two following ones, but in oxides with a higher number of oxidations the prefix “per-” and the suffix “-ico” are added. . , This results (for example) in a perchloric oxide for the oxidation state of this element +7.

For systems with prefixes or roman numerals, the rules applied for the three oxidation numbers are repeated, equal to these.


They are found in nature as crystalline solids.

Unlike other oxides that make up molecules, basic oxides adopt polymeric structures.

Due to the considerable strength of the M–O bonds and the polymer structure of these compounds, basic oxides are usually insoluble, but can be attacked by acids and bases.

– Many of the basic oxides are considered to be non-stoichiometric compounds.

– The bonds of these compounds are ionic and become covalent as per period in the periodic table more advanced.

– The acidic characteristic of the oxide increases as it descends through a group in the periodic table.

– It also increases the acidity of an oxide in a large number of oxidation states.

Basic oxides can be reduced with various reagents, but others can also be reduced by simple heating (thermal decomposition) or by an electrolysis reaction.

– Most are actually basic (non-amphoteric) oxides on the left side of the periodic table.

Most of the Earth’s crust is made up of solid oxides of metallic type.

– Oxidation is one of the ways that leads to the corrosion of a metal material.


iron oxide

It is found as a mineral in iron ores, such as hematite and magnetite.

In addition, iron oxide forms the famous red “oxide” that forms metal particles when exposed to oxygen and moisture.

sodium oxide

It is a compound used in the manufacture of ceramics and glasses, in addition to being a precursor in the manufacture of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda, a powerful solvent and cleaning product).

magnesium oxide

A solid hygroscopic mineral, high in thermal conductivity and low in electrical conductivity, this compound has many uses in the construction branch (such as walls resistant to fire), and in the remediation of contaminated water and land.

copper oxide

There are two types of copper oxide. Cupric oxide is a black solid obtained from mining and which can be used as a pigment, or for the final disposal of hazardous substances.

On the other hand, cuprous oxide is a red solid semiconductor that is added to dyes, fungicides and marine paints to prevent the accumulation of waste in the hulls of ships.