Phylloclade and cladodes are flattened, photosynthetic shoots , which are generally considered to be modified branches . The two words are used interchangeably or interchangeably by different authors. Phyllocladus , a species of conifer, is named after these formations . Phylloclades / cladodes have been identified in fossils from the time of the Permian .

Phyllanthus angustifolius

Definition and morphology

The word “phylloclade” is from New Latin phyllocladium , itself derived from Greek phyllo , leaf and kaldos , branch.

The definitions of the terms “phylloclade” and “cladode” are different. All agree that they are flattened structures that are photosynthetic and resemble leaf-like branches. In one definition, phylloclades are a subset of the cladodes, namely those that have very similar or function as leaves , [2] as in butcher’s broom ( Ruscus aculeatus ) as well as Phyllanthus and some Asparagus species. According to an alternative definition, cladodes are distinguished by their limited development and consist of only one or two internodes. By this definition, some of the most leaf-like structures are cladodes, not phylloclades. By that definition, Phyllanthus has phylloclades, but Ruscus and Asparagus have cladodes.

Another definition uses “phylloclade” to refer to a part of a leaf-like stem or branch with multiple nodes and internodes, and “cladode” to a single internode of a phylloclade. [4]

Although phylloclades are usually interpreted as modified branches, evolutionary studies have shown that they are intermediate between leaves and branches as their names indicate. [5] Molecular genetic investigations have confirmed these findings. For example, Hirayama et al. (2007) showed that the phylloclade of Ruscus aculatus “is not homologous to neither shoot or leaf, but has a dual organ identity,” implying that it combines shoot and leaf processes. [6] Phylloclades also occur in Bryophyllum and Kalanchoe .

Similar structures

Aristat leaves end at a stiff point that may continue to the primary leaf vein; It may resemble the stem end of a phylloclade/cladode.
Epiphyly: Flowers and fruits develop “on a single leaf”. A stem and a leaf fuse together. [7] Examples include the Monophyllaea in the family Gesneriaceae and Helwingia in the Helwingiaceae . Epiphyly also occurs in bryophytes .

What is an example of a phylloclade?

They also have tissue growth. Many plants are dioecious, some fleshy or succulent resembling aloe, chyle or smilax and Gloriosa, some ascending and resembling Ruscus and Asparagus, some containing phylloclade.

Explain what is phylloclade?

Definition of phylloclade

A flattened stem or branch (such as the joint of a cactus) that serves as a leaf.

What is a phylloclade in plants?

Cladodes (also called cladophylls or phylloclades) are shoot systems in which leaves do not develop; Rather, the stem flattens out and takes over the photosynthetic functions of the plant. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis; Shatavari), the scales found on asparagus spears are the true leaves.

How is phylloclade helpful to plants?

This characteristic of the phylloclade helps it to withstand extreme environmental conditions by reducing transpiration from the leaf surface. They are adapted to life in arid, arid and arid conditions and these modifications make for added benefits.