What is the Plumbate Oxide Formula: Let’s know about Plumbate Oxide Formula. Plum oxide , also known as lead oxide (II) or lead monoxide, is a chemical compound of the formula PbO. It is found in two polymorphs: litcharge and mesicotite. Its structure is depicted in Figure 1.
Returning to composition, burning is the oxidized product of molten lead that is agitated or atomized to incorporate into air, then cooled and ground to form a yellow powder.
The name mesicotite is used for the parent mineral and for the lead monoxide product by heating lead carbonate to 300 C (Lead Monoxide, 2016). Mascotite has an orthorhombic structure, whereas litterage has a tetragonal crystalline structure. Lead oxide (II) has the ability to change structure when heated or cooled.
PbO is formed by oxidation of metallic lead. The metal is melted to form tablets, and then they are melted between 170 ~ 210 ° C and passed through a flame to oxidize at a temperature of more than 600 ° C. The oxide products are crushed to obtain the finished lead oxide (Kirk-Othmer, 1995).
2Pb + O2 → 2PbO
PbO is produced on a large scale as an intermediate product in the refining of lead minerals into metallic lead. The main mineral used is galina (lead sulfide (II)). At high temperatures (1000 °C), sulfides are converted into oxides as follows:
2PbS + 3O2 → 2PbO + 2SO2
Physical and chemical properties of plumb oxide
Lead monoxide can present two distinct appearances: as a dry yellow powder with an orthorhombic structure (mesicotite) or as a red tetragonal crystal (litcharge).
The compound has a molecular weight of 223.20 g/mol and a density of 9.53 g/ml. It has a melting point of 888 °C and a boiling point of 1470 °C (National Center for Biotechnology Information, SF).
The compound is very poorly soluble in water, capable of dissolving as mesicotite at 25 °C for each liter and 0.1065 g for each liter as litcharge at 25 °C for each liter. The compound is also insoluble in alcohol. It is soluble in acetic acid, dilute HNO3 and alkali (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015).
The compound is a weak oxidizing or reducing agent, however, redox reactions can still occur. These compounds are not reactive to water.
Lead oxide incandescently oxidizes aluminum carbide when heated. Mixtures of lead oxide with aluminum powder (with other metals: sodium, zirconium) give a violent explosion.
response and threats
Lead monoxide is a compound that is classified as poisonous. The substance is toxic to the central nervous system and may be carcinogenic in humans (Material Safety Data Sheet Lead Oxide, Yellow, 2013).
Symptoms of early poisoning are lead lines that appear on the edge of the gums and the skin turns brown. Neurasthenic syndrome will also occur in the initial period of poisoning.
Cerebellar toxicity can lead to lead poisoning, lead poisoning to mania, as well as depression in susceptibility to poisoning and multiple neuritis paralysis.
Lead poisoning can also cause hypochromic anemia and metabolic and endocrine disorders. In addition, lead poisoning can inhibit the activity of certain enzymes in the digestive tract and cause indigestion, severe abdominal pain, and liver damage. It can also lead to high blood pressure and increased cholesterol.
If severe abdominal pain occurs, some measures can be taken such as, subcutaneous injection of atropine and other drugs, warm abdomen, enema, hot water bath and so on. The maximum concentration in air is 0.01 mg/m3 (Lead Monoxide, 2016).
In contact with eyes or with skin, it should be washed off with plenty of water. In case of inhalation or ingestion, the victim should be moved to a ventilated place. Vomiting should not be induced. If the victim does not breathe, mouth-to-mouth should be started again.
In all cases you should seek immediate medical attention. Lead monoxide is a harmful compound for the environment, bioaccumulation of this chemical can occur in plants and mammals.
It is strongly recommended that this substance does not enter the environment, so it should be handled and stored in accordance with established stipulations (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, 2015).
Lead monoxide has been used as a paint dryer and as a low fire flux in the manufacture of ceramics and glass. Lead crystal glass is used in the manufacture of high quality tableware.
Using lead monoxide as a flux, it is possible to obtain a glass with a high refractive index and, as a result, the desired brightness (Encyclopdia Britannica, 2016).
Half-metallic ceramic conductors have the highest conductivity of all ceramics except superconducting. Lead oxide is an example of this type of semi-metallic ceramic. These materials have an excess of electron energy bands and are therefore excellent electronic conductors (Mason, 2008).
Lead oxide is mainly used in electron tubes, imaging tubes, optical glasses, anti-X-ray lead glasses and radiation-resistant rubbers.
It is used as an analytical reagent, flux of silicates, but also for the precipitation of amino acids.
Lead oxide is used in the manufacture of PVC plastic stabilizer and is also a raw material for other major salts. It is also used in the refining of oil and for the determination of gold and silver.
It is also used as a yellow pigment in paints and enamels. Mascotite was used as a pigment by artists from the 15th to the 18th century.
Thin layers of lead monoxide are used to produce iridescent colors in brass and bronze. A plumber mixes litage with glycerol to make cement.