Thymine / aɪ m n _ _ / ( t , tera ) is one of the four nucleic acids inof DNA that are represented by the letters G-C-A-T. The others are adenine , guanine and cytosine . Thymine isalso known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. In RNA , the thymine nucleobase is replaced by uracil . Thymine was firstby Albrecht Cosello in 1893.and Albert Neumann from the thymus glands of calves, hence its name.
As its alternative name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymines can be obtained by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. In RNA , thymines is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymines (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds , thereby stabilizing the nucleic acid structure.
Thymine combines with deoxyribose to form the nucleoside deoxythymidine , a synonym for the term thymidine . Thymidine can be phosphorylated with three phosphoric acid groups, producing dTMP ( doxyt hymidine m ono p hosphate ) , dTDP, or dTTP ( for di- and tri-phosphates, respectively).
One of the common mutations of DNA involves two adjacent thymines or cytosines which, in the presence of ultraviolet light, can form thymine dimers, causing a “kink” in the DNA molecule that prevents normal function.
Thymine may also be a target for the actions of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cancer treatment. 5-FU can be a metabolic analog of thymine (in DNA synthesis) or uracil (in RNA synthesis). Substitution of this analog inhibits DNA synthesis in actively dividing cells.
Thymine bases are often oxidized to hydantoin over time after the death of an organism.
Thymine imbalance causes mutation
During the development of bacteriophage T4, an imbalance of thymine availability, either a deficiency or an excess of thiamine, causes an increase in mutations.  Mutations caused by thymine deficiency occur only at AT base pair sites in DNA and are often AT to GC transition mutations.  In the bacterium Escherichia coli , thymine deficiency was also found to be mutagenic and to cause AT to GC transition.
In March 2015, NASA scientists reported that for the first time, the complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including uracil, cytosine and thymine, have been formed in the laboratory under conditions of outer space, such as the starting chemicals, Found in meteorites using pyrimidine. According to scientists, pyrimidines, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), another carbon-rich compound, may have formed in red giants or interstellar dust and gas clouds.  Thymine has not been found in meteorites, which suggests that the first strand of DNA had to be found elsewhere to obtain this building block. Thymine is likely to form within some meteorite parent bodies, but may not remain within these bodies due to an oxidation reaction with hydrogen peroxide.
What happens to thiamine?
Thiamine is also used to increase AIDS and immunity. Along with this, it is used for pain due to diabetes, heart disease, alcoholism, aging, cerebellar, glaucoma, fear of motion, improvement in athletic behavior.
Which disease is caused by deficiency of thiamine?
Vitamin B1 or thiamine deficiency can lead to dementia, Alzheimer’s, cancer and metabolic diseases. Scientists warn that ignoring deficiencies in vitamins other than folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin A can lead to serious consequences.
Which vitamin is thiamine?
The scientific name of vitamin “B1” is thiamine hydrochloride. Adults need one milligram of vitamin “B1” per day. Pregnant women need 5 milligrams of vitamin “B1” for a lifetime. Vitamin “B1” is excreted out of the urine when there is more than the requirement.