Chemistry is the branch of science that studies the composition, structure, properties, and changes  of substances during a chemical reaction . Its literal configuration is rasa + ayan which literally means the study of rasas (liquids) . It is a physics that deals with the study of atoms , molecules , crystals (rhines) of matter and the energy released or used during chemical processes .
In short, chemistry is the scientific study of chemical substances.  Matter is composed of atomic or subatomic particles such as electrons, protons and neutrons.  Chemistry is also called a central science or basic science because it combines other sciences such as astronomy, physics, materials science, biology, and geology.
Ten most commonly used chemicals
|chemical substances||number of products||Quantity (in Tons)|
|Average Aromatic Solvent Naphtha||2,439||16,307|
The origin of the term ‘chemistry’ – linguistics
- In linguistics , the root root of chemistry, Chemi, is derived from the Greek chemia, which means ‘Greek technique of metal making’.
- According to other belief, the meaning of Kemi – to merge with each other.
- Chemy, the parent metal of chemistry, is similar to the Chinese word Kim, which means the art of transformation of metals. One form of this is Chin.
- The word Chemy in Arabic and Greek is actually a variation of the Chinese language Kim. The word Chimmi in Chinese (Mandarin language) means ‘smelting gold’.
- The transformation, formation and properties of elements and compounds are broadly studied under chemistry.
- According to another belief, chemistry is believed to come from the Spanish language alchemy, which is derived from the Arabic al-kimia, which literally means transformation.
- Although there are different opinions on the origin of the word Kemi, but even after this it is certain that the root of this word is the same. Similar words are found in the languages of East Central Asia and Europe, hence this fact is confirmed.
Chemicals in India
The history of chemistry in India is very ancient. Indians had knowledge of chemistry and chemical technology from the pre-Harappan period (4000 BC). There are many references to the superiority of Indian steel in history. The iron pillar of Delhi and the copper statue of Buddha located in Bhagalpur district of Bihar are irrefutable examples of this.
The word ‘Rasayana’ has also been used extensively in Ayurveda . In Ayurveda, mercury was called ‘Rasaraj’ i.e. king of juices and medicines made from mercury were called ‘Rasayana’. Rasashastra is made of chemicals .
- Chemistry is the art of understanding the secrets of chemicals. It is known from this science that what things are made of matter, what are their properties and what changes take place in them.
- All matter is made up of elements. Indian scholarly philosophers declared that matter is composed of the five great elements, namely- sky, air, water, effulgence and earth. On the other hand, according to Greek thinkers, matter is composed of four types of elements, namely – earth, air, water and fire.
Chemistry in Europe
- Chemistry began in Europe with Theophilus in the 12th century.
- In the 15th-16th century, Paracelsus (1493-1541 AD) worked in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry.
- Francis Bacon (1561-1636 AD) laid the foundation of modern chemistry in the 16th-17th centuries.
Fields of chemistry
There are also many branches of chemistry that are divided into the study of substances. The branches of chemistry are [organic chemistry], inorganic chemistry , biochemistry , physical chemistry , analytical chemistry , etc.
In organic chemistry, the study of organic substances , inorganic chemistry inorganic substances , in biochemistry the substances present in micro-organisms , in physical chemistry, the structure, composition and energy of matter, in analytical chemistry, the analysis of samples to determine its structure and structure is studied. Let’s know In recent times some more branches of chemistry like neuro-chemistry have emerged.
The field of chemistry is very wide and is expanding day by day with the coordination of other sciences. As a result, today we see the study of chemistry in many new areas like physical and chemistry, biochemistry, physio-chemistry, general chemistry, agricultural chemistry, etc.
For the convenience of study we classify chemistry into several branches-
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Physical Chemistry
- Analytical Chemistry
- Industrial Chemicals
- Medicinal chemicals
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Agricultural Chemicals
- Environmental Chemistry
- Green Chemistry
- Theoretical Chemistry
Apart from these , there are other branches like geochemistry , astrochemistry , polymer chemistry , cluster chemistry , electrochemistry , environmental chemistry , food chemistry , general chemistry , nano chemistry , solid state chemistry , thermochemistry , etc.
Chemistry and our life
Chemistry has an integral contribution in improving human life. The development of chemistry is essential to secure the future of mankind. This will be possible only when the general public will be attracted towards this science. The need of the hour is to make judicious use of this science.
- The entire universe is a huge storehouse of chemicals. Wherever our eyes go, we see different types of objects. The whole world is the laboratory of chemistry. This science is full of many amazing chemicals. The origin of stars, the appearance of planets and life on planets have become possible only through chemical reactions in the universe.
- Chemistry has also been called a life-use science, because this science has an important role in the internal activities of our body.
- The only source of all the energy on the earth is the Sun , which is giving light and heat for the last 5 billion years , trees and plants are growing, animals are moving, clouds are moving, somewhere there is a flash of lightning and thunder. Somewhere there are storms and somewhere storms are registering their presence, somewhere earthquakes and somewhere tsunami incidents are happening.
- In all these incidents, chemicals are showing their feat.
- All of them are made of some or the other substance, which is in solid, liquid or gas form, but they are also chemicals.
- No aspect of our life is untouched by chemicals.
- Scientists have also termed our life as ‘chemical action’.
- All the characteristics of life are echoes of chemical processes.
- The processes of nutrition, growth, digestion, excretion, reproduction in living things are chemical reactions.
- Chemical reactions are responsible for all of the sensory experiences of humans, such as words, touch, form, taste and smell.
- In fact, chemistry is related to our daily life.
- We start with morning tea which is an aqueous solution boiled with milk, sugar, tea leaves.
- Chemicals play a role in providing basic necessities like food, clothing and shelter.
- Wherever we look, there are only sights of chemicals.
- The things of daily use, such as soap, oil, brush, brush, brush, comb, glass, paper, pen, ink, medicines, plastic etc. are the products of chemistry.
- Chemicals are prevalent in religion-karma, worship-recitation, bathing, incense-lamp, naivedya, incense sticks, roli, protection and camphor etc.
- In festivals and Teej festivals, chemicals are also prevalent behind lamps, candles and firecrackers.
- Transport, telecommunications, transportation and various sources of energy such as coal, petrol, diesel, kerosene, naphtha and cooking gas are also examples of various chemical compounds.
- Chemistry has played an amazing role in making human life comfortable.
- Tools, equipments and devices used in our daily life like chair, table, TV. Fridge, Clock, Cooker, Iron, Mixer, AC, Hearth, Utensils, Paints, Clothes, Pigments and Dyes Detergents, Pesticides, Miscellaneous Cosmetics Detergents ), Pesticides, various cosmetic ingredients etc. are all a contribution of chemistry.
- In fact, chemicals are related to every gas, liquid or solid substance. The environment in which we live and breathe is made up of various chemicals. Gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, etc. are present in the atmosphere.
Chemistry in therapy
The progress of medical science is the result of chemistry. At present, 75 percent of the medicines are synthesized from chemical substances. Today there are about 4000 known medicines but the number of diseases is around 30,000. Therefore, in the future, the priority of chemistry is for disease mitigation.
Classification of drugs
- 1. Headache and other analgesics
- 2. Burn Medicines
- 3. Anti-cold cough
- 4. Antiseptic
- 5. Laxatives
- 6. sedatives, anesthetics
- 7. Stimulants
Headache : Aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 ) – acetic ester of alicylic acid
Burn Medicines – Skin Irritation Tannic Acid and Burnol on the Burn
Cold and cough – 75 percent of the country’s people are affectedKuliya – Thaimal, MenthalPancake – AcetanilideOral – menthol, camphor, propylene glycol spray
Antiseptic – Dettol, Mercurochrome , Boric Acid
emollients – Epsom salts, phenolphthalein strychnine
Anesthetics – Ether, Ethylene, Nitrous Oxide
hypnotic or sedative – phenobarbital
Antibiotic – Dr. Alexander Fleming obtained penicillin from Penicillium fungi in 1928 . Streptomycin, Tetramycin, Biomycin, Erythromycin – Synthesis of antibiotic chain
Chemicals in household and food
- Stainless steel utensils – a mixture of 14% nichrome (an alloy of chromium and nickel ) in iron
- Brass utensils – utensils made of copper and zinc alloys
- Bronze utensils – a precious alloy consisting of 88% copper, 10% tin and 2 percent zinc; Gold, Silver and Bronze medals in sports
- Aluminum utensils – Bauxite (Al 2 O 3 )
- Silver utensils – soft metal, copper or nickel mixed with it.
- Plastic dishes, cups, etc. – These are made of Bakelite , which is made from phenol and formaldehyde .
- Rubber – A new substance made by mixing petroleum hydrocarbons and butadiene styrene with other chemical substances is called ‘ artificial rubber ‘.
- Heavy Vehicle Tires – Chloroprene Rubber
Aircraft tires – conducting polymers
- Chemicals in Food – 6 Main Chemical Components of Diet – Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
- Use of chemicals in homes
- Stomach complaints – Vinegar – acetic acid salt and water.
- baking soda – sodium bicarbonate
- Washing soda – sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 )
- edible salt – NaCl
- Rock Salt – KCl
- Alum – K 2 SO 4 , Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 24H 2 O
- In batteries – 38 percent aqueos solution of H 2 SO 4
- quicklime – Ca(OH) 2
- ethanol in alcoholic beverages
- Aroma of flowers – flavones and flavonoids.
- Raspberry smell – ionine
- Banana smell – isoamyl acetate
- Lemon Freshness – Limonene Compound Sourness – Citric Acid
- Antacid medicines – Mg(OH) 2 in case of acidity . Due to this, the stomach produces MgCl 2 and water, which reduces acidity.
- In marble and chalky soil – CaCO 3 compound.
- Main ingredient of toothpaste Al 2 O 3
- Compounds of Iodine in Mouthwash – Disinfectant
- Through chemistry, adulteration in food items, such as milk, desi ghee, mustard oil, green vegetables, pulses, flour, tea and spices can also be tested at home by simple methods.
- Titanium oxide and polyurethane are used in paints and varnishes . The basis of paint used in houses is acrylic latex.
Chemicals in the manufacture of glass
- Glass is the world’s first synthetic thermoplastic. It can be molded into any form. Sand (SiO 2 ), limestone (CaO), sodium oxide (Na 2 O) and other minerals and metals are melted together to make glass and various utensils are made from it. Nowadays glass is used in many ways.
- To make colored glass , different types of chemical salts are added to it –
pale blue or green – Fe 2 O 3Yellow – Fe(OH) 3light yellow – leadpink or pale pink – seleniumblue – copperGreen – high amounts of copperred – copper oxide
Glass with plastic
- Glass fibers when combined with plastics form a very strong material called reinforced plastics , which are used to make roofs, boats, sporting goods, suitcases, and the bodies of automobiles.
- Glass wool – bundle of loose glass fiber, good heatproof, it is used in fridge, oven, cooker and hot water bottles.
Soaps and detergents
- The use of soap for cleaning dates back to about 2800 BC. In the second century, the Greek physician Galen mentioned the manufacture of soap from alkaline solutions.
- Soap is the sodium salt of fatty acids. The sodium or potassium salts of stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid.
- Soaps containing sodium are solid and hard while those containing potassium are soft and liquid. Soap Formula : C 17 H 35 COONa
- Shampoo also soap mixed with alcohol. In this, the oil is made water soluble by treating it with sulfuric acid.
- Disinfectant to remove baldness – Resercinal
- The nature of water does not affect the detergent . Hence more popular.
Paper is obtained from wood only by chemical process . Hundreds of liters of water are chemically treated to obtain the paper. Pencil, cutter, sharpener, rubber, eraser, whitener, ink etc. are all chemicals.
Photography process based on chemistry. negative to positive images sodium thiosulfate coated paper
- Dettol – Popular Disinfectant – Home Use (Chloroxylenol)
- Phenyl – more prevalent
- Bactericidal chemicals (alcohol) in wound and surgery 60-90% and boric acid – universally accessible
- Previously cleaning with H 2 O 2 for wound dressing ; Iodine tincture also used
- Phenol or carbolic acid – bactericidal – preoperative hand cleaning by surgeon
- Use of bleaching powder (CaOCl 2 ) Used in the cleaning of water sources and drains, drains.
Chemicals hidden in cosmetics
- Cream or cold cream – A face cream is made from a mixture of olive mineral oil, beeswax, water and borax. Perfumes , alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols for fragrance .
- Powder – Chadia, Talcum, Zinc Oxide, Clay Powder, Starch, Dyes Fragrance
- Lipstick – a coloring material made from wax and coal tar. Some oil is added to the mixture for lubrication.
- Shaving Cream – Stearic Acid, Oil, Grease and Potassium Hydroxide
- Nailpolish – a quick-drying type of paint to which titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) is added for color. Nowadays nitrocellulose, acetone, amyl acetate etc. Ethyl acetate, acetone and olive oil for discoloration.
- Chemical Pesticides , Fungicides , Developed
- Soilless Agriculture – Hydrophonics
- Use of sulfuric acid and gypsum in wasteland reclamation
- Chemical Fertilizers – Urea, Murate of Potash, Sulphate of Potash, DAP, C.A.N. e.t.c.
Chemicals used in industries
- Industry is not possible without the role of chemistry . Plastics, textiles, fertilizers, glass, metals, paper, leather, coal, metals, paper, leather, coal, gas, petrochemicals, chemicals derived from sulfur and chlorine, chemicals obtained from lime, etc.
- Explosive substances: (used in mining, building demolition, oil and gas wells) Many nitrates such as cellulose nitrate and nitroglycerin , potassium nitrate etc. are explosives.
- Radioactivity and nuclear processes are studied under this branch of chemistry .
- This is the latest branch which is also called ‘Green and Sustainable Chemistry’. Green or green chemistry refers to the design of chemical products or chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the production or use of harmful waste.
- Use of liquefied carbon dioxide in place of perchloroethylene (carcinogenic) in dry cleaning.
- Medicine named Ibuprofin – manufacturing of pain and antipyretic is possible in 10 to 6 steps, 30 percent reduction in pollution.
- Developed a safer alternative to chlorine for bleaching cellulose in paper mills.
- Developed a very simple and effective filter for filtering water by coating a nano-layer of graphite oxide on sand particles.
- Application of green enzymes in industries.
- Agricultural chemicals, plastic fibers etc. available at low cost through bio-catalysts.
- Application of green enzymes in industries.
- Combining organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry and biochemistry, unexpected benefits in the pharmaceutical field – the gift of green chemistry.
- Polylactic acid used in biocompatible fibers, biodegradable sutures and packaging.
- IIT in India Green catalytic method developed in Guwahati, Kanpur and Delhi. Effective in pharmaceutical industry.
- Uses of Corn Syrup in the Food Industry
Chemicals hidden in various mysteries
- The Charisma of Chemicals in Fireworks – Techniques for making and using fireworks – Pyrotechnics or Fireworks. Chemicals used are dextrin, charcoal, redgum, aluminum, potassium perchlorate and ammonium perchlorate.
- As soon as the pyrotechnics are set on fire, the fuel and oxidizer react at temperatures between 2200 to 36000 C, producing a sound.
- SrCO 3 , nitrate and chlorate green to color fireworks Paper used in fireworks Fireworks-flammable when touch paper is soaked in KnO 3.
Chemicals in the color of henna
- Lawsone , which is a chemical of the naphthaquinone class, gives its red color to the skin of the hands by interacting with the protein filaments present in the skin of the hands.
- Cause of chameleon color change: The melanophore – the specialized pigment cells of chameleons – shrink with the rise and fall of temperature. These cells, stimulated by the hormones secreted in their body – intermedin, acetylcholine etc., change color.
- Discoloration of flowers – When the petals of green, yellow, blue and red flowers are exposed to sulfur dioxide and chlorine, these gases cause the color of the flowers to fade.
- Wrinkles of old age are also caused by chemicals – Wrinkles due to a decrease in collagen and elastin protein fibers present in the upper surface of the foreskin.
- Wrist watch cell – Lithium – The cell of the wrist watch is called ‘button cell’ due to its button shape. In this, lithium acts as the negative electrode, positive as an oxidising agent.
- Laughing and crying gases – nitrous oxide gas and nitrile bromide; Use by police as ethyl iodoacetate tear gas .
- Chemicals in the composition of tears – Proteins, nitrogen, urea, glucose, sodium, oxides of potassium, ammonia, chlorine, sodium chloride, lysozyme enzymes etc. are present in the fluid of our tears.
- Hunchback and bad teeth in water – Water also shows charisma in a human being hunchbacked. Consumption of water containing fluoride for a long time causes deformity in bones and teeth, which leads to humpback and deformities in teeth.
- The incendiary metal in water – sodium has a close friendship with water.
2Na + 2H 2 -> 2NaOH + H 2
- Secret of firefly ‘s glow : Luciferin C13H12N 2 S 2 O 3 present in the trunk of the light producing firefly + Mg = light.
- World’s sweetest substance: Talim protein which is five thousand times sweeter than sugar.
- Sunglasses filled with chemicals: Particles of silver iodide and silver bromide in photochromatic glasses . Separated in the sun and re-paired in the shade.
- Cooking gas liquid: LPG (Liquified petroleum gas) mainly propane and butane gas mixed with odorous thioalcohol. This gas is filled at high pressure for use in homes.
- Aroma of flowers – derivatives of turpentine and benzene
- Sliced apple discoloration : White part after cutting Bad – caphytanin, tannin called epicatechin – oxidized by exposure to air.
- Contribution of capsaicin to irritation from eating chili .
- Role of ethylene gas in ripening of fruits – Green colored fruits turn red-yellow in colour.
- Ozone hole – A thin layer of ozone surrounds the earth at an altitude of 15-50 km from the earth. It protects the earth from the high energy ultraviolet rays of the sun and protects our life. For the first time in 1987, this layer was seen falling in Antarctica . Role of chlorofluorocarbons in its pore formation .
- Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) for lining non-stick utensils
- The color of betel – due to catechunic acid.
- Hydroponics – agriculture without soil.
- Chemicals in the Secret of Inks : Ball Point Pen Inks – Mixing colored pigments with oleic acid, castor oil and sulfonamides.
- Chemicals showing the way to ants : Queen, winged male and wingless female – three species of ants constantly release odorous pheromones which find the way.
- Stamp pad ink – made by dissolving a dye called indulin in glycerin, phenol or cresol.
- Printing inks – Mineral oil, anilon dyes and use of silver salt and aniline compound in the inks used for election.
- Women’s friend – Contribution of Centchroman (synthesis with Resorcinol) to the non-steroidal, non-hormonal contraceptive pill.
- Osmium is the heaviest metal and gallium is more expensive than platinum .
- Plant stains – (grass, tea, vegetable, coffee, fruit) hot water, soap and icing.
- Organic stains – ammonia, salt, lemon, carbon tetrachloride for stains of blood, sputum, phlegm, eggs, mucus.
- Chemical stains – iron, ink, varnish, use of oxalic acid and H 2 O 2 for paint , Vaseline, sodium perborate and chloroform for oil stains .
- Use of PbS instead of Sb 2 S 3 in antimony in the eyes – fatal to the eye. Lead is a highly toxic metal to the body.
- Excessive use of formaldehyde in cosmetics. It is fatal when used in shampoos, preservatives etc.
- Harmful of aluminum utensils (lightweight, cheap, rust-free and abundantly available). Sour items, salt and soda, curd, tea, chutney, vinegar, fruit juice, tomato juice etc. should never be kept in aluminum utensils.
- Damage to brain cells from frequent consumption of high aluminum-rich food or tea.
Energy – Cells , Batteries , Nuclear Furnace , Petroleum etc.
Metals , plastics and other building materials
soap , oil , cosmetics
High quality silicon wafers for IC manufacturing
helper to catch criminals
Ammunition , explosives and other munitions