What is the Zinc Oxide Formula: Let’s know about Zinc Oxide Formula. Zinc oxide is a chemical compound of the formula ZnO. It is an inorganic chemical compound used as an ingredient in over-the-counter medicines. It is mainly used in various industries as an additive in dyes and semiconductors.
Zinc oxide is found in nature in zinc oxide, which is mainly found in New Jersey, USA. Zincite has a hexagonal crystalline structure (mindat.org and Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, 2017).
There are several processes to synthesize zinc oxide, the main routes of which are the French and American methods.
In the French process, the metallic zinc is vaporized and the steam is oxidized with preheated air. The American process uses isolated crude zinc compounds, which are reduced by carbon, producing zinc vapor. Then, the zinc vapor is oxidized with the oxygen present in the air, similar to the French process.
Another way to synthesize zinc oxide is the wet process, which involves purifying sulfate or zinc chloride through precipitation with carbonate. The zinc is then precipitated to obtain zinc oxide (Zinc Oxide Formula, S.F.).
ZnSO 4 + NaCO 3 → ZnCO 3 + NaSO 4 → ZnO + CO 2 (800 ° C).
physical and chemical properties
Zinc Oxide Formula. Zinc oxide is a white solid with no aroma and bitter taste (National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2017).
Zinc oxide has two possible structures: hexagonal and cubic, but hexagonal crystals are the most common. The compound has a molecular weight of 81.38 g/mol and a density of 5.606 g/ml. Its melting point is 1975 °C, where it begins to decompose (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015).
ZnO is an amphoteric oxide that can dissolve in acids or bases through the reactions:
ZnO + 2H + → Zn +2 + H 2 O
ZnO + 2OH – → Zn +2 + H 2 O
Zinc oxide is insoluble in water (0.0004 g per 100 ml of water at 17 °C). The low solubility it produces produces aqueous solutions that are neutral in pH. Reacts violently with aluminum and magnesium dust posing a risk of fire and explosion.
Intimate mixtures of zinc oxide and chlorinated rubber with or without hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents react violently, even explosively when heated.
Slow addition of zinc oxide to the surface covering of linseed oil varnish causes heat generation and ignition (CAMEO, 2016).
response and threats
Zinc oxide is a stable compound that is not flammable and shows no incompatibility with other chemical compounds, but when heated, emits toxic fumes. It is not toxic or dangerous when mixed or in contact with the skin or eyes, although the compound does represent a hazard by inhalation.
A harmful concentration of particulates in the air can be reached quickly, especially for zinc oxide particles. Inhalation of smoke can cause metal fume fever with the following symptoms:
- sore throat
- fever or high body temperature
- Muscle pain.
The smoke-like substance is irritating to the respiratory system. The effect may be delayed. Symptoms of metal smoke fever do not appear until after a few hours (NIOSH, 2015).
In case of inhalation, the victim should be allowed to rest in a well-ventilated area. If the inhalation is severe, the victim should be evacuated to a safe area as soon as possible.
Loose clothing such as shirt collars, belts or ties. If the victim finds it difficult to breathe, oxygen should be administered.
If the victim is not breathing, mouth-to-mouth is resumed. Always bear in mind that it may be dangerous to the person who helps with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when inhaled material is toxic, infectious or corrosive (Material Safety Data Sheet Zinc Oxide, 2013).
Despite zinc oxide’s use as a medicine, it is very toxic to the environment, especially to aquatic organisms. Immediate measures should be taken to limit their spread in the environment in accordance with established regulations.
Today, nanotechnology is working in various fields of science through its action on materials and devices using various nanometer-scale techniques (Wasim Mohammed (Ph.D.), 2010).
Nanoparticles are part of nanomaterials which are defined as individual particles 1-100 nm in diameter.
In recent years, nanoparticles have been a common material for the development of new cutting-edge applications in communication, energy storage, identification, data storage, optics, transmission, environmental protection, cosmetics, biology and medicine with important optical, electrical and magnetic properties. .
Notably, the unique properties and usefulness of nanoparticles also arise from a variety of characteristics, including the similar size of nanoparticles and biomolecules, such as proteins and polynucleotide acids. In addition, nanoparticles can be made with a wide range of metals.
Metal oxide nanoparticles, including zinc oxide, are versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic interventions.
There is an urgent need to develop new classes of anticancer agents, and recent studies show that ZnO nanomaterials are very promising (John W. Rasmussen, 2010).
These nanoparticles have antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtration properties. Some synonyms of zinc oxide nanoparticles are oxidatum, cincine oxicum, permanent white, ketosine and oxocene (AZoNano, 2013).
Zinc oxide is a widely used product in dermatology for skin care. In the United States it is a main ingredient of sunscreens due to its reflective properties.
Zinc oxide is one of the safest ingredients to protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) rays. UV rays penetrate the skin and damage tissue, accelerating the aging process and drying out the skin.
These rays also increase the risk of skin cancer. Sunscreens that contain zinc oxide filters UV rays, preventing them from penetrating the skin and causing cell damage.
Zinc oxide is also effective in healing the skin. It can be used to heal wounds, reduce sensitivity associated with sunburns, and soothe chapped skin.
People who are zinc deficient experience a slower healing cycle of wounds. When zinc oxide is applied to the wound area, it provides the body with extra zinc, which is needed to repair skin cells. Zinc oxide helps to keep the wound area moist and clean.
Lotions and creams that contain zinc oxide are effective skin astringents. Zinc oxide may be applied to prevent excess oil build-up on the surface.
It is sometimes used as an acne treatment – it is believed to reduce the appearance of acne and reduce skin irritation and inflammation, thereby reducing the number and severity of acne breakouts ..
The National Institutes of Health reports that topical and oral zinc appears to be a safe and effective treatment for acne (PEARSON, 2015).
Zinc ointment may work best for this common skin condition when used in combination with the topical antibiotic erythromycin.
Because of its antibacterial and deodorizing properties, doctors usually treat diaper rash with zinc oxide ointment. It is usually applied at every diaper change for optimum effectiveness.
Keeping the diaper area clean and allowing the skin to dry completely before applying zinc oxide ointment can help reduce the severity of diaper rash.
According to the American Academy of Dermatology, zinc oxide ointment may relieve the symptoms of melasma. Melasma is a common skin condition that causes brown spots on the face, especially on the nose, cheeks, lips and forehead.
About 90 percent of melasma cases occur in women. Its most frequent in people with darker skin.
Minor skin irritations such as cuts, burns, scrapes and poison ivy often benefit from the anti-inflammatory properties contained in zinc oxide ointment. You can apply a thin layer of zinc oxide to the affected skin as often as necessary to relieve irritation and promote healing.
The protective effects of zinc oxide ointment on the skin make it one of the best over-the-counter treatments for hemorrhoids.
Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anal canal that are caused by excess pressure in the pelvic and anal areas. Hemorrhoids are usually not serious, but can cause significant discomfort (HELLESVIG-GASKELL, 2013).
2- Rubber Industry
More than 50% of zinc oxide is used in the rubber industry. Through the vulcanization process, the finish has high tensile strength and resistance to swelling and abrasion, and is elastic over a wide temperature range.
In its simplest form, vulcanization is produced by heating rubber with sulfur (Encyclopdia Britannica, 2018).
Two materials that play an important role in vulcanization chemistry are known as “activators”, usually zinc oxide and stearic acid.
These compounds react together and with accelerators to form the zinc sulfide compound, which is an important intermediate for the addition of sulfur to a diene elastomer and forms sulfur bonds to produce elements such as tires, soles. Shoe and even hockey puck (Gent, 2016).
3- pigments and paints
Along with linseed oil (a drying oil useful as a vehicle), zinc oxide has been used as a pigment since the 18th century, which rapidly expanded the European paint industry. The basic white pigments include zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, lithopone and titanium dioxide (Encyclopdia Britannica, 1998).
4- Solar Cell
One very important use is that zinc oxide is widely used as a buffer layer in CIGS solar cells (Copio Indio Gálio Selenido). Some current experiments focus on the effect of ZnO thickness on the maximum output power for cells.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an interesting material with respect to conductivity. It crystallizes in the wurtzite structure, and its association is a mixture of ionic and covalent. High purity monocrystals are insulators.
Zinc oxide is the most piezoelectric of all materials and is widely used as a transducer in electronic devices. (Piezoelectricity is the property of a crystal to polarize when subjected to pressure.)
Zinc oxide is a good semiconductor when incorporated into crystals. Polycrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide ceramics conduct well and obey Ohm’s law.
In addition to small amounts of other oxides such as barium and chromium, zinc oxide makes ceramics very non-ohmic electrical properties.
6- Other uses
The addition of zinc oxide helps to process the concrete and also improves water resistance.
Zinc oxide is used in cigarette filters and as an additive to cereals. It is also used in xerography as a photographic sheet and as an anticorrosive.
The future of high quality zinc oxide will undoubtedly be attractive. Potential advances for non-pharmacological applications also exceed current medicinal uses.
Nanorod zinc oxide, spintronic and piezoelectric sensors are very promising areas and should not go too far in the future.